IUPUI Research Day 2014

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A program book describing the Research Day 2014 events and posters is available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/4257.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 238
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    Participatory Innovation: A Pedagogical Approach To Help Students Reveal Real-World Problems
    (IUPUI Research Day, 2014-04-11) Ganci, Aaron
    In the digital sector, ‘innovation’ is a frequently overused word. Entrepreneurs worldwide are trying to innovate within their market. However, the drive for innovation can blind the creators of these products, obscuring what people actually need and want to use. Countless applications struggle or outright fail because they are created without the user in mind. Digital technology can be a powerful tool in people’s everyday life but it has to be integrated in meaningful ways. Careful consideration must be placed on how these new products will integrate—and improve—life. When new products truly help people, they are more likely to resonate and succeed; this is real innovation. Everyone involved in the production of digital products—entrepreneurs, developers, and experience or visual designers (the focus of this project)—must abide by this philosophy in order for the product to be successful. Students who are preparing to be involved with the design or production of these products need to learn ways to more deeply understand their users, identify problems, and craft meaningful solutions. With this in mind, research was conducted to identify and test methods that allow students to acquire this deeper understanding. This poster will outline one pedagogical approach which utilizes participatory design methods to help students identify problems in people’s lives. For this research, visual communication design students utilized these methods in a project for the course Visual Design for the Web. An overview of the pedagogical approach, project, student outcomes, and implications for future work will be highlighted.
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    Evaluation of a Hybrid Iterative Reconstruction technique "iDose" for CT Dose Reduction and Image Quality
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Liang, Yun
    Purpose: To investigate the use of a commercial designed hybrid iterative reconstruction technique iDose (by Philips Medical Systems) for CT radiation dose reduction and its effect on image quality. Methods: A catphan®504 phantom was scanned using a 64-slice CT (Ingenuity, Philips Medical Systems) with two different tube voltages (100 kVp, and 120 kVp) at three different doses, a reference dose (CTDIvol) of 42 mGy and two reduced doses of about 50% and 75% of the reference. Images were reconstructed with standard filtered-back-projection (FBP) and with iDose algorithms. Six different iDose levels were employed. Quantitative evaluation of spatial resolution, image noise, noise power spectrum (NPS), and low-contrast detectability were carried out. Results: For any given dose level, there was a static noise reduction with increased iDose level over the FBP. To match the “standard” noise resulted from the FBP at the “reference dose”, a minimum iDose level of 4 and 6 was required for 50% and 75% dose reduction respectively. NPS showed moderate shift towards the lower frequency as the iDose level increased. The NPS shift was consistent with the observed subtle change of noise texture. This shift also correlated with the change in low-contrast detectability among images with the same noise level, the higher the iDose level that was used in image reconstruction, the lower the low-contrast detectability. Conclusions: The iDose algorithm clearly demonstrates effectiveness in noise suppression over the FBP. The low-contrast detectability depends on noise but also on NPS, which is shifted by iDose algorithm. At very low-dose levels, greater iDose levels would be needed to reduce the image noise but may not improve the low-contrast detectability. This findings indicate that for any given specific clinical task, the lowest dose limit achievable is determined by an “optimal” iDose level ascertaining the noise reduction as well as maintaining desired low-contrast detectability.
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    Determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Fulvic Acid on Early Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Tahir, Ali; Witcher, Phillip; Gregory, Richard L.
    Fulvic acid is an active ingredient in many homeopathic treatments. Shilajit is one such treatment that is mainly used in the Indian Subcontinent area. It is believed that fulvic acid has some remedial properties that can help with inhibition of many types of bacteria and various malignant diseases. In this experiment the effects of fulvic acid were analyzed on early Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. S. mutans is an oral bacterium that contributes to the formation of dental caries forming bacterial biofilm on teeth. For the experiment, early S. mutans biofilm formation was treated with different concentrations of fulvic acid for 24 hours in sterile 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates. The optical density (OD) of the S. mutans biofilm was then measured using a SpectraMax190, after staining with crystal violet. Data was analyzed on the knowledge that a greater OD is correlated to a greater bacterial biofilm. Results demonstrated that fulvic acid inhibited the growth of early S. mutans biofilm formation at fulvic acid concentrations greater than 5% (vol. %). After preliminary studies, different concentrations of fulvic acid closer to the estimated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were applied to the S. mutans to find a more precise MIC of the fulvic acid on the biofilm growth. Upon completion of these various studies, fulvic acid was shown to inhibit early S. mutans biofilm formation and may show signs of oral health improvement if applied for human use.
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    Using Amino Acid Derivatives to Inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation on Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelia Cells
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) LaCombe, Jonathan M.; Anderson, Gregory G.; Marrs, Kathleen A.
    Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease caused by a mutation which inhibits the proper transport of sodium and chloride ions across epithelium. Improper ion transport results in the accumulation of thick mucus in critical organs such as the lungs, pancreas, liver, and intestines. The genetic mutation is incurable, but treating the symptoms can vastly increase life expectancy. CF patients are often afflicted with bacterial infections which colonize the excess mucus within the lungs. The most prevalent pathogen associated with CF lung infection is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium found in soil and water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exists in two forms: planktonic (free-swimming) and sessile (immobile within a biofilm community). The planktonic form is about 1,000x more susceptible to antibiotics and immune cells than the sessile form. Biofilm communities of sessile bacteria are protected by an exopolysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall. Small molecules which inhibit biofilm formation or initiate biofilm disassembly can dramatically increase the effectiveness of drugs and the immune system. In order to identify novel biofilm-inhibitory molecules, we assessed the activity of a library of small molecules in biofilm assays. Active compounds were then screened for activity on living Cystic Fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compounds which successfully inhibit biofilm formation without affecting the Cystic Fibrosis bronchial epithelium cells can potentially be a new drug for treating Cystic Fibrosis infections.
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    Effects of the Selective PDE4B Inhibitor TDP-003 on Ethanol Consumption
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Despard, Jessica Lee; Grahame, Nicholas; Halcomb, Meredith
    Alcoholism is a disease that affects about 18 million Americans. Inhibition of drinking behavior can help develop better therapeutic and medical treatments to these people. Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) is an enzyme that helps breakdown cAMP, which in turn decrease alcohol consumption. cHAP mice are known to have a unique strong preference to ethanol. However, it is not yet known whether or not this relatively new strain of mice are affected by known agonists and antagonist neurotransmitters that reduce ethanol consumption in cousin strains. cHAP mice were used in this particular study due to their unique genetic make-up of having an above average preference to ethanol. The mice were trained for ethanol preference for two weeks. Once the cHAPs obtained stable ethanol consumption, the drug TDP-003, which contains the PDE4B subtype inhibitor, was administered in the morning with interval ethanol and water consumption readings every two hours from the time of injection. TDP-003 was given in three separate doses; 0.03ml, 0.1ml, and a 0.3ml mg/k along with a vehicle dose, which served as a control. Once data was collected and analyzed, it was found that there was not a significant effect in the amount of ethanol the cHAPs were consuming with the drug. In order to ensure that this result was not due to an experimental methods design error, the cHAPs were ran for another week on stable ethanol consumption and then injected with rolipram to see if a positive effect occurred. Rolipram is also a PDE4 inhibitor; predominantly affecting the PDE4B subtype. cHAPS were given three separate doses of rolipram, a 0.1ml, 0.25ml, and a 0.5ml mg/k dose, along with a vehicle dose. Once again, there were no significant differences in the amount of ethanol consumption that was consumed; thus implying that TDP-003 did not work.
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    Reliability and Validity of the OrthoMechanics Sequential Analyzer
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Ghoneima, Ahmed A.; Talaat, S.; Kaboudan, A.; Kula, Katherine S.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of newly developed software in the assessment of orthodontic tooth movement three dimensionally. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post- treatment computed tomography scans and plaster dental models of 20 orthodontic subjects treated with a hyrax expander as a part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Dental arch measurements, including arch widths, tooth inclinations and angulations, were measured on the scans using InvivoDental 3D imaging software version 5.1. The plaster dental models were laser scanned, superimposed, and measurements were obtained digitally using the new software. Agreement between the digital models and the CT measurements was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), paired t-tests, and Bland-Altman plots. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: High agreement (ICC > 0.9), a non-significant paired t-test, and no indication of agreement discrepancies were observed for most of the measured parameters. Conclusions: The new software program offers a valid and reliable tool concerning dental arch measurements obtained from 3D laser scanned models. It could be considered a possible practical method that helps the orthodontist evaluate the treatment progress in a non-invasive manner and without unnecessary radiation exposure. Funding: Indiana University Purdue University - Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research & the Funding Opportunities for Research Commercialization and Economics Success (FORCES).
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    Indiana Institute for Biomedical Imaging Sciences
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Robbins, Courtney
    The Indiana Institute for Biomedical Imaging Sciences (IIBIS) was created to foster the development, testing, and translation of modern biomedical imaging technologies and methodologies into clinical care in order to advance our ability to care for patients. The Institute is housed across three buildings. The Research Institute II (R2) building is centrally located within the Medical School campus, and is in close proximity to the Medical Science Building (home to the IU School of Medicine Basic Science Departments), the IU Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center Hospital and Research Facilities, the O’Brien Center for Biological Microscopy, and the Wells Research Center (Department of Pediatrics), Indiana University Hospital, Riley Children’s Hospital, the Ruth Lilly Medical Library, the CTSI sponsored Clinical Research Center (ICRC), the IU CTSI – Covance Phase I Clinical Trials Unit, and the Laboratory Animal Resource Center (LARC). All of these facilities are linked to the R2 facility via tunnels or indoor walkways with less than a 5 minute walk between any two locations. The first floor and basement level of the R2 building house comprehensive dedicated research facilities for human and animal imaging (MRI, PET, and CT) along with ancillary support space including wet laboratories, surgery suites, an image processing laboratory, a machine shop, and an electronics shop. The Biomedical Research and Training Center (BRTC) houses the tracer and contrast agent development program. This space accommodates medical cyclotrons and has extensive synthetic chemistry space, radiochemistry space, molecular biology laboratories, cell culture labs, and ancillary support labs for shared instrumentation and device construction. The BRTC, R2, and IU Simon Cancer Hospital buildings are linked by a pneumatic tube system that permits the rapid transfer of short-lived PET radiopharmaceuticals from the chemistry laboratories to the PET imaging systems. The IU Health Neuroscience Center (Goodman Hall, GH) houses the IU Center for Neuroimaging and additional IIBIS core imaging facilities. GH is easily accessible from R2 via a 10-minute ride on the IU Health Monorail system. GH is a cutting-edge outpatient facility, which houses all major clinical neuroscience departments. There are both dedicated and research clinical imaging facilities with state-of-the-art human imaging equipment. The IIBIS Office for Research Imaging (ORI) has been established as a centralized point of contact for all investigators who are interested in utilizing imaging in their research. ORI offers a range of services that include education of investigators on the capabilities and application of imaging technologies, consultation to assist with imaging study design, assistance with the development regulatory documents for research protocols, budget development, coordinated scheduling, and support for image processing and data analysis. ORI has arrangements with our hospital partners and facilities access to IIBIS imaging systems and clinical imaging systems distributed throughout the IU Health Academic Hospitals. As a means to assist investigators, an IIBIS Research Development Initiative (IIBIS-RDI) has been created to aid in the collection of key preliminary data required for the submission of competitive extramural grant applications. Of particular interest are projects that can be classified as high risk/high reward. Through the IIBIS-RDI the cost for imaging studies utilizing the IIBIS in vivo imaging core facilities will be covered by IIBIS. IIBIS-RDI support can be coupled with other pilot study programs such as those provided through the Indiana CTSI, the IUSM Strategic Research Initiative, and our academic institutions (IUPUI, IU, Purdue) in order to maximally leverage the limited resources available through those programs. Applications are accepted on a rolling submission basis and will be reviewed for approval on the basis of scientific merit, feasibility, and preliminary data needs for the target grant application. Investigators interested in the IIBIS-RDI are encouraged to contact the IIBIS Office for Research Imaging (ori@iupui.edu) to initiate project discussions, get more information about this program, and obtain the IIBIS-RDI application template.
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    The Monetary Impact of Outpatient No-Shows in the Nuclear Medicine Department of a Pediatric Hospital
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Moore, Michele
    Outpatient no-shows are going to be a regular occurrence for any nuclear medicine department. Hospitals lose thousands of dollars each year from non-attendance. Determining the overall monetary impact of the no-shows and uncovering which procedures contribute most in terms total no-shows and total financial impact is a first step in alleviating some of this loss. Method: From a Nuclear Medicine children’s hospital, six months of data were collected retrospectively from December 2012 through May 2013. This included: procedure, current procedural terminology codes, total number of scans, total number of no-shows, as well as total hospital cost, and total revenue lost. The percentage for each procedure contributing to the total financial impact was calculated by dividing the cost for each procedure by the total loss in revenue. This was done for the total hospital cost (radiopharmaceuticals) and the total revenue loss (technical component). Results: From December 2012 through May 2013 the financial impact for this nuclear medicine department was $17,512.32. The procedures contributing to the most hospital cost were renal dynamic imaging, renal morphology imaging, and gastric emptying, resulting in 54%, 19.2%, 13.4% respectively. The procedures contributing to the most revenue loss were gastric emptying, renal dynamic imaging, and hepatobiliary imaging, resulting in 30.7%, 17.0%, and 13.4% respectively. Conclusion: Outpatient no-shows are going to be a regular occurrence for any nuclear medicine department, but losing money does not have to be. Nuclear medicine departments need to discover ways of eliminating no-shows and identify which procedures contribute to the most financial impact. This is imperative in reducing the amount of revenue lost from wasted radiopharmaceuticals, technologist’s time, and the technical components in a department.
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    Expanding Access to Dental Care through Dental Hygienists
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Maxey, Hannah; Taylor, Heather
    Introduction: An estimated 64.7 million Americans suffer with dental conditions such as tooth decay and gum disease, diseases that is entirely preventable with adequate oral care [1, 2]. Access to preventive dental care continues to be an issue for vulnerable populations seeking care in Indiana. Currently, dental hygienists, clinicians who offer preventive dental services, are reporting significant challenges finding adequate employment. These clinicians have the potential to address some of Indiana’s access to dental care issues, yet there are labor market imbalances within the profession. Methods: The workforce and labor market of dental hygienists was analyzed on a national and state level. In addition, qualitative data were collected from key-informant interviews with leaders within Indiana’s dental hygiene educational programs. Through the use of a non-probability survey, graduates of dental hygiene programs were questioned on employment factors and key barriers within the labor market. Indiana’s oral health delivery system was analyzed for key opportunities to address access to care issues. Policy on dental hygiene scope of practice within Indiana is also presented. Results: The dental hygiene labor market is experiencing market saturation. Indiana has restrictive policies on dental hygienist’s scope of practice. Leaders in the profession suggest policy changes and less restrictions on the practice of dental hygiene in order to address the current access to dental care issues. Conclusion: Hoosier children are experiencing preventable disease burden, while at the same time Indiana’s workforce trained in dental disease prevention is experiencing market saturation. Recommendations to address labor market imbalances among dental hygienists are suggested as well as methods to promote preventive oral health care access.
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    Development of Cross-Tolerance Between Ethanol and Baclofen in C57Bl/6J Mice
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Blasingame, Shelby N.; Kasten, Chelsea R.; Boehm, Stephen L., II
    Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse. One criteria of alcohol abuse is the development of tolerance, meaning that more of the substance has to be ingested to produce the same pharmacological or behavioral effects. The phenomenon of cross-tolerance is when use of one substance leads to tolerance to an unused substance. Ethanol has also been shown to produce cross-tolerance to other drugs, such as benzodiazepines. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether prior binge-like ethanol exposure in C57Bl/6J (B6) mice would produce a cross-tolerance to the locomotor sedative effects of the GABAB agonist R(+)-baclofen. We exposed 32 B6 male mice to a limited-access binge-like drinking procedure. Mice received daily access to either 0.2% saccharin or 20% ethanol for 2 hours, 3 hours into the dark cycle each day. There were four groups; 5 days of saccharin or ethanol access, and 10 days of saccharin or ethanol access. Baseline locomotor recordings were taken before ethanol drinking using Versamax activity monitors. Twenty-two hours following the last day of binge-like ethanol access, all animals received a 10mg/kg injection of R(+)-baclofen and Versamax activity was recorded for 1 hour. Sedation scores were calculated by subtracting the challenge day locomotor scores from the baseline locomotor scores. There was no effect of length of exposure (5 versus 10 days) or fluid type (ethanol versus saccharin) on total sedation scores (p<.05). A Length of Exposure*Fluid Type*Time-Bin ANOVA looking at sedation scores in 5 minute bins revealed a trend towards an omnibus interaction, but it did not reach significance (p=0.64). There was a main effect of time, with sedation scores being lower immediately following the injection (9<.05). These results indicate that ethanol does not produce a locomotors cross-tolerance to R(+)-baclofen.