O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs Works

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 401
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    The Sensitivity of Repeat and Near Repeat Analysis to Geocoding Algorithms
    (Elsevier, 2020) Haberman, Cory P.; Hatten, David; Carter, Jeremy G.; Piza, Eric L.; School of Public and Environmental Affairs
    Purpose: To determine if repeat and near repeat analysis is sensitive to the geocoding algorithm used for the underlying crime incident data. Methods: The Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department provided 2016 crime incident data for five crime types: (1) shootings, (2) robberies, (3) residential burglaries, (4) theft of automobiles, and (5) theft from automobiles. The incident data were geocoded using a dual ranges algorithm and a composite algorithm. First, descriptive analysis of the distances between the two point patterns were conducted. Second, repeat and near repeat analysis was performed. Third, the resulting repeat and near repeat patterns were compared across geocoding algorithms. Results: The underlying point patterns and repeat and near repeat analyses were similar across geocoding algorithms. Conclusions: While detailing geocoding processes increases transparency and future researchers can conduct sensitivity results to ensure their findings are robust, dual ranges geocoding algorithms are likely adequate for repeat and near repeat analysis.
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    Is “Overhead” A Tainted Word? A Survey Experiment Exploring Framing Effects of Nonprofit Overhead on Donor Decision
    (Sage, 2021) Qu, Heng; Daniel, Jamie Levine; School of Public and Environmental Affairs
    Nonprofit overhead ratios (i.e., proportion of funds spent on fundraising and/or management) have long been used as a proxy for nonprofit efficiency. Prior studies find that donors negatively respond to charities with higher overhead. Using a survey experiment, we explore whether providing different types of information about overhead alleviates this donor aversion. When asked to choose between two organizations as donation recipients, donors preferred the organization with lower overhead. However, when presented with information that described the purpose of higher overhead as building long-term organizational capacity, an increased proportion of donors chose to give to the organization with higher overhead. Omitting the word “overhead” further increased the proportion of donors choosing the organization with higher overhead. This study adds to our understanding of overhead aversion and has practical implications for nonprofits that rely on voluntary private contributions to achieve their missions.
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    Reassessing the Relationship Between Mortgage Loan Investment and Crime Across Race/Ethnicity, Disadvantage, and Instability
    (Sage, 2022-12-04) Boggess, Lyndsay N.; Stucky, Thomas D.; School of Public and Environmental Affairs
    Home loans are associated with fewer crimes in neighborhoods and some research shows investment may be especially helpful in disadvantaged or minority neighborhoods. To replicate and extend this research, we estimate a series of multilevel negative binomial models on crime to (1) replicate prior research, (2) examine the robustness of extant findings to variable specification, and (3) expand on prior work by examining the conditional role of residential instability. In line with prior work, our results show that tracts receiving larger absolute and relative loan amounts experience fewer violent crimes. However, the magnitude of crime-reduction benefits of investment are attenuated when including aggravated assaults or accounting for the relative value of the loans. Though investment was associated with lower violent crime in all types of tracts, disproportionate benefits of investment—that is, more bang for the buck—occurs more consistently in White tracts than tracts of color. These findings underscore the importance of replication for ensuring sound housing and anti-crime policies.
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    Evaluation of the Indianapolis Mobile Crisis Assistance Team
    (2018) Bailey, Katie; Ray, Brad; Grommon, Eric; Lowder, Evan; Rising Paquet, Staci
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    Study protocol and stakeholder perceptions of a randomized controlled trial of a co-response police-mental health team
    (Springer, 2023) Bailey, Katie; Hofer, Meret; Sightes, Emily; Lowder, Evan Marie; Grommon, Eric; Ray, Bradley
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    Trade scenarios compensating for halted wheat and maize exports from Russia and Ukraine increase carbon emissions without easing food insecurity
    (Springer, 2022-10) Carriquiry, Miguel; Dumortier, Jerome; Elobeid, Amani; School of Public and Environmental Affairs
    The Russian invasion of Ukraine has destabilized global agricultural markets, triggering food price increases. We present scenarios of reduced exports and production affecting both countries that increase maize and wheat prices by up to 4.6% and 7.2%, respectively. Production expansion in other regions can partially compensate for export declines but may increase carbon emissions and will exacerbate ongoing global food security challenges.
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    State Fiscal Reserves and the Great Recession
    (Taylor & Francis, 2022-03-16) Buerger, Christian; Reitano, Vincent; School of Public and Environmental Affairs
    Governments around the world accumulate fiscal reserves to prepare for exogenous shocks such as recessions. Using data from 2004 to 2016 for state governments in the United States, we estimate empirical models controlling for time-variant and -invariant state characteristics. Our results show that savings increase at the expense of spending in specific categories and that fiscal reserves also support only certain expenditure functions. Further, we find that the relationship between savings and spending differs over the business cycle as fiscal reserves increase during times of economic prosperity and decrease during economic declines.
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    Distributions of Flood Risk: The Implications of Alternative Measures of Flood Risk
    (World Scientific Publishing, 2022-07) Noonan, Douglas; Richardson, Lilliard; Sun, Pin; School of Public and Environmental Affairs
    Flooding imposes considerable property risk, and flood maps and flood insurance help prospective and existing property owners assess the potential risk. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) works with local and state officials to produce flood maps. Using these flood maps and demographic attributes, prior research has demonstrated correlations between the percent of a tract identified as disadvantaged and the percent of the tract covered by flood zones. Until recently, FEMA flood maps were the primary assessment tool for flood risk, but First Street Foundation (FSF) has developed its own flood risk tools. This paper compares these alternative flood risk measures as a percent of census tracts in the Southeastern US states and assesses models of the risk measures with demographic, housing, policy and control variables. The main results are first that the FEMA and FSF maps often reveal diverging levels of risk per tract. Second, the demographics correlating with tract-level risk differ markedly for the two risk measures. Third, the results vary considerably by state with more divergence in some states than others, and who is at risk of flooding across the states varies between the FEMA and FSF measures.
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    Patterns of Compliance and Noncompliance During Probation: Identifying Pathways to Probation Revocation
    (2022) Lowder, Evan; Northcutt Bohmert, Miriam; Diaz, Carmen; Ying, Michelle; Grommon, Eric; Hatfield, Troy
    Prior research has explored factors associated with probation outcomes, but few studies have examined pathways of noncompliance leading to probation failure. We conducted social sequence analysis to identify trajectories of compliance and noncompliance in a sample of 4,389 probationers in Monroe County, Indiana. Our findings showed full compliance was the most common probation trajectory and a single failure to appear (FTA) the most common pattern of noncompliance. In addition to a new offense during probation, repeated patterns of FTA and substance use noncompliance were associated with higher revocation rates. Recurrent patterns of technical violations, particularly for substance use, may function as an important pathway to revocation. Supervision strategies that intervene to address recurrent noncompliance may help agencies reduce revocation rates.