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    Adult Ossabaw Pigs Prefer Fermented Sorghum Tea over Isocaloric Sweetened Water
    (MDPI, 2023-10-18) Nelson, Catherine E.; Aramouni, Fadi M.; Goering, Mikayla J.; Bortoluzzi, Eduarda M.; Knapp, Laura A.; Herrera-Ibata, Diana M.; Li, Ka Wang; Jermoumi, Rabia; Hooker, Jane A.; Sturek, Joshua; Byrd, James P; Wu, Hui; Trinetta, Valentina; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Jaberi-Douraki, Majid; Hulbert, Lindsey E.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Ossabaw pigs (n = 11; 5-gilts, 6-barrows; age 15.6 ± 0.62 SD months) were exposed to a three-choice preference maze to evaluate preference for fermented sorghum teas (FSTs). After conditioning, pigs were exposed, in four sessions, to choices of white FST, sumac FST, and roasted sumac-FST. Then, pigs were exposed, in three sessions, to choices of deionized H2O (-control; avoidance), isocaloric control (+control; deionized H2O and sucrose), and blended FST (3Tea) (equal portions: white, sumac, and roasted sumac). When tea type was evaluated, no clear preference behaviors for tea type were observed (p > 0.10). When the 3Tea and controls were evaluated, pigs consumed minimal control (p < 0.01;18.0 ± 2.21% SEM), and they consumed great but similar volumes of +control and 3Tea (96.6 and 99.0 ± 2.21% SEM, respectively). Likewise, head-in-bowl duration was the least for -control, but 3Tea was the greatest (p < 0.01; 5.6 and 31.9 ± 1.87% SEM, respectively). Head-in-bowl duration for +control was less than 3Tea (p < 0.01; 27.6 vs. 31.9 ± 1.87% SEM). Exploration duration was the greatest in the area with the -control (p < 0.01; 7.1 ± 1.45% SEM), but 3Tea and +control exploration were not different from each other (1.4 and 3.0 ± 1.45% SEM, respectively). Regardless of tea type, adult pigs show preference for FST, even over +control. Adult pigs likely prefer the complexity of flavors, rather than the sweetness alone.
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    Redox and Nucleophilic Reactions of Naphthoquinones with Small Thiols and Their Effects on Oxidization of H2S to Inorganic and Organic Hydropolysulfides and Thiosulfate
    (MDPI, 2023-04-19) Olson, Kenneth R.; Clear, Kasey J.; Gao, Yan; Ma, Zhilin; Cieplik, Nathaniel M.; Fiume, Alyssa R.; Gaziano, Dominic J.; Kasko, Stephen M.; Luu, Jennifer; Pfaff, Ella; Travlos, Anthony; Velander, Cecilia; Wilson, Katherine J.; Edwards, Elizabeth D.; Straub, Karl D.; Wu, Gang; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and its derivatives (NQs, juglone, plumbagin, 2-methoxy-1,4-NQ, and menadione) have a variety of therapeutic applications, many of which are attributed to redox cycling and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We previously demonstrated that NQs also oxidize hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to reactive sulfur species (RSS), potentially conveying identical benefits. Here we use RSS-specific fluorophores, mass spectroscopy, EPR and UV-Vis spectrometry, and oxygen-sensitive optodes to examine the effects of thiols and thiol-NQ adducts on H2S-NQ reactions. In the presence of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys), 1,4-NQ oxidizes H2S to both inorganic and organic hydroper-/hydropolysulfides (R2Sn, R=H, Cys, GSH; n = 2-4) and organic sulfoxides (GSnOH, n = 1, 2). These reactions reduce NQs and consume oxygen via a semiquinone intermediate. NQs are also reduced as they form adducts with GSH, Cys, protein thiols, and amines. Thiol, but not amine, adducts may increase or decrease H2S oxidation in reactions that are both NQ- and thiol-specific. Amine adducts also inhibit the formation of thiol adducts. These results suggest that NQs may react with endogenous thiols, including GSH, Cys, and protein Cys, and that these adducts may affect both thiol reactions as well as RSS production from H2S.
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    TACE/ADAM17 substrates associate with ACS (Ep-CAM, HB-EGF) and follow-up MACE (TNFR1 and TNFR2)
    (Elsevier, 2022-09-28) Chemaly, Melody; McAllister, Roisin; Peace, Aaron; Bjourson, Anthony John; Watterson, Steve; Parton, Andrew; Clauss, Matthias; McGilligan, Victoria; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Background and aims: TACE/ADAM17 is a membrane bound metalloprotease, which cleaves substrates involved in immune and inflammatory responses and plays a role in coronary artery disease (CAD). We measured TACE and its substrates in CAD patients to identify potential biomarkers within this molecular pathway with potential for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) prediction. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from consecutive patients (n = 229) with coronary angiographic evidence of CAD admitted with ACS or electively. MACE were recorded after a median 3-year follow-up. Controls (n = 115) had a <10% CAD risk as per the HeartSCORE. TACE and TIMP3 protein and mRNA levels were measured by ELISA and RT-qPCR respectively. TACE substrates were measured using a multiplex proximity extension assay. Results: TACE mRNA and cell protein levels (p < 0.01) and TACE substrates LDLR (p = 0.006), TRANCE (p = 0.045), LAG-3 (p < 0.001) and ACE2 (p < 0.001) plasma levels were significantly higher in CAD patients versus controls. TACE inhibitor TIMP3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in CAD patients and tended to be lower in the ACS population (p < 0.05). TACE substrates TNFR1 (OR:3.237,CI:1.514-6.923,p = 0.002), HB-EGF (OR:0.484,CI:0.288-0.813,p = 0.006) and Ep-CAM (OR:0.555,CI:0.327-0.829,p = 0.004) accurately classified ACS patients with HB-EGF and Ep-CAM levels being lower compared to electively admitted patients. TNFR1 (OR:2.317,CI:1.377-3.898,p = 0.002) and TNFR2 (OR:1.902,CI:1.072-3.373,p = 0.028) were significantly higher on admission in those patients who developed MACE within 3 years. Conclusions: We demonstrate a possible role of TACE substrates LAG-3, HB-EGF and Ep-CAM in atherosclerotic plaque development and stability. We also underline the importance of measuring TNFR1 and TNFR2 earlier than previously appreciated for MACE prediction. We report an important role of TIMP3 in regulating TACE levels.
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    A new perspective on NO pathway in sepsis and ADMA lowering as a potential therapeutic approach
    (BMC, 2022-08-12) Singh, Jaipal; Lee, Young; Kellum, John A.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    The nitric oxide pathway plays a critical role in vascular homeostasis. Increased levels of systemic nitric oxide (NO) are observed in preclinical models of sepsis and endotoxemia. This has led to the postulation that vasodilation by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generated NO may be a mechanism of hypotension in sepsis. However, contrary to the expected pharmacological action of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, clinical studies with L-NAME produced adverse cardiac and pulmonary events, and higher mortality in sepsis patients. Thus, the potential adverse effects of NO in human sepsis and shock have not been fully established. In recent years, the emerging new understanding of the NO pathway has shown that an endogenously produced inhibitor of NOS, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a host response to infection, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis as well as organ damage during ischemia-reperfusion. ADMA induces microvascular dysfunction, proinflammatory and prothrombotic state in endothelium, release of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. High levels of ADMA exist in sepsis patients, which may produce adverse effects like those observed with L-NAME. Several studies have demonstrated the association of plasma ADMA levels with mortality in sepsis patients. Preclinical studies in sepsis and ischemia-reperfusion animal models have shown that lowering of ADMA reduced organ damage and improved survival. The clinical finding with L-NAME and the preclinical research on ADMA "bed to bench" suggest that ADMA lowering could be a potential therapeutic approach to attenuate progressive organ damage and mortality in sepsis. Testing of this approach is now feasible by using the pharmacological molecules that specifically lower ADMA.
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    Specific Lowering of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine by Pharmacological Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Improves Endothelial Function, Reduces Blood Pressure and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
    (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2021) Lee, Young; Mehrotra, Purvi; Basile, David; Ullah, Mahbub; Singh, Arshnoor; Skill, Nicholas; Younes, Subhi Talal; Sasser, Jennifer; Shekhar, Anantha; Singh, Jaipal; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Multiple clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are strongly associated with hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular and renal disease. Genetic studies in rodents have provided evidence that ADMA metabolizing dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-1 plays a role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, it remains to be established whether ADMA is a bystander, biomarker, or sufficient contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease. The goal of the present investigation was to develop a pharmacological molecule to specifically lower ADMA and determine the physiologic consequences of ADMA lowering in animal models. Further, we sought to determine whether ADMA lowering will produce therapeutic benefits in vascular disease in which high ADMA levels are produced. A novel long-acting recombinant DDAH (M-DDAH) was produced by post-translational modification, which effectively lowered ADMA in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with M-DDAH improved endothelial function as measured by increase in cGMP and in vitro angiogenesis. In a rat model of hypertension, M-DDAH significantly reduced blood pressure (vehicle: 187 ± 19 mm Hg vs. M-DDAH: 157 ± 23 mm Hg; P < 0.05). Similarly, in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, M-DDAH significantly improved renal function as measured by reduction in serum creatinine (vehicle: 3.14 ± 0.74 mg/dl vs. M-DDAH: 1.1 ± 0.75 mg/dl; P < 0.01), inflammation, and injured tubules (vehicle: 73.1 ± 11.1% vs. M-DDAH: 22.1 ± 18.4%; P < 0.001). These pharmacological studies have provided direct evidence for a pathologic role of ADMA and the therapeutic benefits of ADMA lowering in preclinical models of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: High levels of ADMA occur in patients with cardiovascular and renal disease. A novel modified dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase by PEGylation effectively lowers ADMA, improves endothelial function, reduces blood pressure and protects from ischemia-reperfusion renal injury.
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    Last Word on Point: Alterations in airway smooth muscle phenotype do cause airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma
    (American Physiological Society, 2012) Gunst, Susan J.; Panettieri, Reynold A., Jr.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
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    Antibody Screening Using a Human iPSC-based Blood-Brain Barrier Model Identifies Antibodies that Accumulate in the CNS
    (Wiley, 2020-09) Georgieva, Julia V.; Goulatis, Loukas I.; Stutz, Charles C.; Canfield, Scott G.; Song, Hannah W.; Gastfriend, Benjamin D.; Shusta, Eric V.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a significant obstacle for the development of neurological disease therapies. The low penetration of blood-borne therapeutics into the brain can oftentimes be attributed to the restrictive nature of the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that comprise the BBB. One strategy beginning to be successfully leveraged is the use of endogenous receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) systems as a means to shuttle a targeted therapeutic into the brain. Limitations of known RMT targets and their cognate targeting reagents include brain specificity, brain uptake levels, and off-target effects, driving the search for new and potentially improved brain targeting reagent-RMT pairs. To this end, we deployed human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived BMEC-like cells as a model BBB substrate on which to mine for new RMT-targeting antibody pairs. A nonimmune, human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display library was screened for binding, internalization, and transcytosis across iPSC-derived BMECs. Lead candidates exhibited binding and internalization into BMECs as well as binding to both human and mouse BBB in brain tissue sections. Antibodies targeted the murine BBB after intravenous administration with one particular clone, 46.1-scFv, exhibiting a 26-fold increase in brain accumulation (8.1 nM). Moreover, clone 46.1-scFv was found to associate with postvascular, parenchymal cells, indicating its successful receptor-mediated transport across the BBB. Such a new BBB targeting ligand could enhance the transport of therapeutic molecules into the brain.
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    Investigational new drug enabling angiotensin oral-delivery studies to attenuate pulmonary hypertension
    (Elsevier, 2020-03) Daniell, Henry; Mangu, Venkata; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Park, Jiyoung; Habibi, Peyman; Shi, Yao; Gonnella, Patricia A.; Fisher, Amanda; Cook, Todd; Zeng, Lily; Kawut, Steven M.; Lahm, Tim; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a deadly and uncurable disease characterized by remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its product, angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)] were expressed in lettuce chloroplasts to facilitate affordable oral drug delivery. Lyophilized lettuce cells were stable up to 28 months at ambient temperature with proper folding, assembly of CTB-ACE2/ANG-(1-7) and functionality. When the antibiotic resistance gene was removed, Ang1-7 expression was stable in subsequent generations in marker-free transplastomic lines. Oral gavage of monocrotaline-induced PAH rats resulted in dose-dependent delivery of ANG-(1-7) and ACE2 in plasma/tissues and PAH development was attenuated with decreases in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, RV systolic pressure, total pulmonary resistance and pulmonary artery remodeling. Such attenuation correlated well with alterations in the transcription of Ang-(1-7) receptor MAS and angiotensin II receptor AGTRI as well as IL-1β and TGF-β1. Toxicology studies showed that both male and female rats tolerated ~10-fold ACE2/ANG-(1-7) higher than efficacy dose. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes enhanced plasma levels of orally delivered protein drug bioencapsulated within plant cells. Efficient attenuation of PAH with no toxicity augurs well for clinical advancement of the first oral protein therapy to prevent/treat underlying pathology for this disease.
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    Disentangling the Gordian knot of local metabolic control of coronary blood flow
    (American Physiological Society, 2020-01-01) Tune, Johnathan D.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Kiel, Alexander M.; Baker, Hana E.; Bender, Shawn B.; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Recognition that coronary blood flow is tightly coupled with myocardial metabolism has been appreciated for well over half a century. However, exactly how coronary microvascular resistance is tightly coupled with myocardial oxygen consumption (MV̇o2) remains one of the most highly contested mysteries of the coronary circulation to this day. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for local metabolic control of coronary blood flow has been confounded by continued debate regarding both anticipated experimental outcomes and data interpretation. For a number of years, coronary venous Po2 has been generally accepted as a measure of myocardial tissue oxygenation and thus the classically proposed error signal for the generation of vasodilator metabolites in the heart. However, interpretation of changes in coronary venous Po2 relative to MV̇o2 are quite nuanced, inherently circular in nature, and subject to confounding influences that remain largely unaccounted for. The purpose of this review is to highlight difficulties in interpreting the complex interrelationship between key coronary outcome variables and the arguments that emerge from prior studies performed during exercise, hemodilution, hypoxemia, and alterations in perfusion pressure. Furthermore, potential paths forward are proposed to help to facilitate further dialogue and study to ultimately unravel what has become the Gordian knot of the coronary circulation.
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    Distinct hemodynamic responses to (pyr)apelin-13 in large animal models
    (APS, 2020-04) Tune, Johnathan D.; Baker, Hana E.; Berwick, Zachary; Moberly, Steven P.; Casalini, Eli D.; Noblet, Jillian N.; Zhen, Eugene; Kowala, Mark C.; Christe, Michael E.; Goodwill, Adam; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    This study tested the hypothesis that (pyr)apelin-13 dose-dependently augments myocardial contractility and coronary blood flow, irrespective of changes in systemic hemodynamics. Acute effects of intravenous (pyr)apelin-13 administration (10 to 1,000 nM) on blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular pressure and volume, and coronary parameters were measured in dogs and pigs. Administration of (pyr)apelin-13 did not influence blood pressure (P = 0.59), dP/dtmax (P = 0.26), or dP/dtmin (P = 0.85) in dogs. However, heart rate dose-dependently increased > 70% (P < 0.01), which was accompanied by a significant increase in coronary blood flow (P < 0.05) and reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume (P < 0.001). In contrast, (pyr)apelin-13 did not significantly affect hemodynamics, coronary blood flow, or indexes of contractile function in pigs. Furthermore, swine studies found no effect of intracoronary (pyr)apelin-13 administration on coronary blood flow (P = 0.83) or vasorelaxation in isolated, endothelium-intact (P = 0.89) or denuded (P = 0.38) coronary artery rings. Examination of all data across (pyr)apelin-13 concentrations revealed an exponential increase in cardiac output as peripheral resistance decreased across pigs and dogs (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.78). Assessment of the Frank-Starling relationship demonstrated a significant linear relationship between left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume across species (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.70). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that (pyr)apelin-13 does not directly influence myocardial contractility or coronary blood flow in either dogs or pigs.