Sunil Badve

Permanent URI for this collection

Sunil Badve's translational research efforts on efficient treatment of breast cancer have a two-pronged approach; developing novel targeted therapies on the one hand and identifying ineffective therapies on the other. His team is studying the individual biological components that culminate in cancer. Gaining a better understanding of these molecular mechanisms will enable identification of key "nodes" in cellular pathways, which can then be targeted by biological agents leading to better diagnosis and effective treatment of breast cancer.

Dr. Badve demonstrated that the FoxA1 protein plays a critical role in determining responses to anti-hormonal therapy IU patent, being licensed. His group has developed a gene signature useful for predicting brain metastasis (IU patent pending) and is currently, with (IU and non-IU) collaborators, trying to dissect the pathways associated with brain metastasis with the hope of preventing and treating this disease. He is also collaborating with IU and Purdue researchers to develop novel methods of detecting and treating breast cancer.

Dr. Badve's practical application of research into information that can be used by local clinicians in treating breast cancer is another example of how IUPUI's faculty members are TRANSLATING their RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 84
  • Item
    Trustworthy Explainability Acceptance: A New Metric to Measure the Trustworthiness of Interpretable AI Medical Diagnostic Systems
    (Springer, 2021-06) Kaur, Davinder; Uslu, Suleyman; Durresi, Arjan; Badve, Sunil; Dundar, Murat; Computer and Information Science, School of Science
    We propose, Trustworthy Explainability Acceptance metric to evaluate explainable AI systems using expert-in-the-loop. Our metric calculates acceptance by quantifying the distance between the explanations generated by the AI system and the reasoning provided by the experts based on their expertise and experience. Our metric also evaluates the trust of the experts to include different groups of experts using our trust mechanism. Our metric can be easily adapted to any Interpretable AI system and be used in the standardization process of trustworthy AI systems. We illustrate the proposed metric using the high-stake medical AI application of Predicting Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) Recurrence. Our metric successfully captures the explainability of AI systems in DCIS recurrence by experts.
  • Item
    Association of Circulating Tumor DNA and Circulating Tumor Cells After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With Disease Recurrence in Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Preplanned Secondary Analysis of the BRE12-158 Randomized Clinical Trial
    (American Medical Association, 2020-09) Radovich, Milan; Jiang, Guanglong; Hancock, Bradley A.; Chitambar, Christopher; Nanda, Rita; Falkson, Carla; Lynce, Filipa C.; Gallagher, Christopher; Isaacs, Claudine; Blaya, Marcelo; Paplomata, Elisavet; Walling, Radhika; Daily, Karen; Mahtani, Reshma; Thompson, Michael A.; Graham, Robert; Cooper, Maureen E.; Pavlick, Dean C.; Albacker, Lee A.; Gregg, Jeffrey; Solzak, Jeffrey P.; Chen, Yu-Hsiang; Bales, Casey L.; Cantor, Erica; Shen, Fei; Storniolo, Anna Maria V.; Badve, Sunil; Ballinger, Tarah J.; Chang, Chun-Li; Zhong, Yuan; Savran, Cagri; Miller, Kathy D.; Schneider, Bryan P.; Medical and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine
    Importance: A significant proportion of patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Sequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) after surgery, along with enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), may be used to detect minimal residual disease and assess which patients may experience disease recurrence. Objective: To determine whether the presence of ctDNA and CTCs after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage TNBC is independently associated with recurrence and clinical outcomes. Design, setting, and participants: A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted from March 26, 2014, to December 18, 2018, using data from 196 female patients in BRE12-158, a phase 2 multicenter randomized clinical trial that randomized patients with early-stage TNBC who had residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy to receive postneoadjuvant genomically directed therapy vs treatment of physician choice. Patients had blood samples collected for ctDNA and CTCs at time of treatment assignment; ctDNA analysis with survival was performed for 142 patients, and CTC analysis with survival was performed for 123 patients. Median clinical follow-up was 17.2 months (range, 0.3-58.3 months). Interventions: Circulating tumor DNA was sequenced using the FoundationACT or FoundationOneLiquid Assay, and CTCs were enumerated using an epithelial cell adhesion molecule-based, positive-selection microfluidic device. Main outcomes and measures: Primary outcomes were distant disease-free survival (DDFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Among 196 female patients (mean [SD] age, 49.6 [11.1] years), detection of ctDNA was significantly associated with inferior DDFS (median DDFS, 32.5 months vs not reached; hazard ratio [HR], 2.99; 95% CI, 1.38-6.48; P = .006). At 24 months, DDFS probability was 56% for ctDNA-positive patients compared with 81% for ctDNA-negative patients. Detection of ctDNA was similarly associated with inferior DFS (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.57; P = .009) and inferior OS (HR, 4.16; 95% CI,1.66-10.42; P = .002). The combination of ctDNA and CTCs provided additional information for increased sensitivity and discriminatory capacity. Patients who were ctDNA positive and CTC positive had significantly inferior DDFS compared with those who were ctDNA negative and CTC negative (median DDFS, 32.5 months vs not reached; HR, 5.29; 95% CI, 1.50-18.62; P = .009). At 24 months, DDFS probability was 52% for patients who were ctDNA positive and CTC positive compared with 89% for those who were ctDNA negative and CTC negative. Similar trends were observed for DFS (HR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.07-9.27; P = .04) and OS (HR, 8.60; 95% CI, 1.78-41.47; P = .007). Conclusions and relevance: In this preplanned secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, detection of ctDNA and CTCs in patients with early-stage TNBC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was independently associated with disease recurrence, which represents an important stratification factor for future postneoadjuvant trials.
  • Item
    Whole-Genome Sequencing to Identify the Genetic Etiology of a Spontaneous Thymoma Mouse Model
    (JPGN Reports, 2021) Conces, Madison L.; Hancock, Bradley A.; Atale, Rutuja; Solzak, Jeffrey P.; Bunting, Karen; Corvelo, Andre; Field, Loren; Badve, Sunil; Liu, Jianyun; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Loehrer, Patrick J.; Radovich, Milan; Pediatrics, School of Medicine
    Background: A mouse model for thymoma was previously created serendipitously by the random introduction of a transgene consisting of a mouse α-cardiac promoter, a constitutively active human transforming growth factor-β, and a simian virus 40 integration sequence into C3HeB/FeJ mice. Previous data demonstrated that the likely cause of thymomas in the thymoma mouse model was due to insertional mutagenesis by the transgene. At the time, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to localize the transgene to the short arm of chromosome 2 (Chr2qF2-G region). In this exploratory study, we aimed to identify the exact insertion site of the transgene as this could provide clues to the genetic causation of thymomas in humans. Materials and Methods: To identify the insertion site of the transgene, germline DNA from the thymoma mouse model was sequenced using low-pass, fragment-library, whole genome sequencing. Long-insert mate pair whole genome sequencing was employed to traverse the repetitive regions of the mouse’s genome and identify the integration site. Results: The transgene was found to be integrated into a repetitive area of the mouse genome, specifically on Chr2qF1 within the intron of the FAM227B gene. Tandem integration of the transgene was observed with enumeration of an estimated 30 copies. Initial results suggested that a nearby gene, fibroblast growth factor 7 (Fgf7), could be affected by the gene insertion. Conclusions: Whole genome sequencing of this thymoma mouse model identified the region of tandem integration of a transgene on Chr2qF1 that may have potential translational implications in helping to understand the genomic etiology of thymoma in humans.
  • Item
    Genomic clustering analysis identifies molecular subtypes of thymic epithelial tumors independent of World Health Organization histologic type
    (Impact Journals, 2021-06-08) Padda, Sukhmani K.; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Hellyer, Jessica A.; Badve, Sunil S.; Singh, Neeraj K.; Vasista, Sumanth M.; Basu, Kabya; Kumar, Ansu; Wakelee, Heather A.; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine
    Further characterization of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) is needed. Genomic information from 102 evaluable TETs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and from the IU-TAB-1 cell line (type AB thymoma) underwent clustering analysis to identify molecular subtypes of TETs. Six novel molecular subtypes (TH1-TH6) of TETs from the TCGA were identified, and there was no association with WHO histologic subtype. The IU-TAB-1 cell line clustered into the TH4 molecular subtype and in vitro testing of candidate therapeutics was performed. The IU-TAB-1 cell line was noted to be resistant to everolimus (mTORC1 inhibitor) and sensitive to nelfinavir (AKT1 inhibitor) across the endpoints measured. Sensitivity to nelfinavir was due to the IU-TAB-1 cell line’s gain-of function (GOF) mutation in PIK3CA and amplification of genes observed from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), including AURKA, ERBB2, KIT, PDGFRA and PDGFB, that are known upregulate AKT, while resistance to everolimus was primarily driven by upregulation of downstream signaling of KIT, PDGFRA and PDGFB in the presence of mTORC1 inhibition. We present a novel molecular classification of TETs independent of WHO histologic subtype, which may be used for preclinical validation studies of potential candidate therapeutics of interest for this rare disease.
  • Item
    Quantification of spatial pharmacogene expression heterogeneity in breast tumors.
    (Wiley, 2022-07-30) Powell, Nicholas R.; Silvola, Rebecca M.; Howard, John S.; Badve, Sunil; Skaar, Todd C.; Ipe, Joseph
    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic drug concentrations vary across different regions of tumors and this is thought to be involved in development of chemotherapy resistance. Insufficient drug delivery to some regions of the tumor may be due to spatial differences in expression of genes involved in the disposition, transport, and detoxification of drugs (pharmacogenes). Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the spatial expression of 286 pharmacogenes in six breast cancer tissues using the recently developed Visium spatial transcriptomics platform to (1) determine if these pharmacogenes are expressed heterogeneously across tumor tissue and (2) to determine which pharmacogenes have the most spatial expression heterogeneity. METHODS AND RESULTS: The spatial transcriptomics technology sequences the transcriptome of 55 um diameter barcoded sections (spots) across a tissue sample. We analyzed spatial gene expression profiles of four biobank-sourced breast tumor samples in addition to two breast tumor sample datasets from 10× Genomics. We define heterogeneity as the interquartile range of read counts. Collectively, we identified 8887 spots in tumor regions, 3814 in stroma, 44 in lymphocytes, and 116 in normal regions based on pathologist annotation of the tissues. We showed statistically significant differences in expression of pharmacogenes in tumor regions compared to surrounding non-tumor regions. We also observed that the most heterogeneously expressed genes within tumor regions were involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling and detoxification mechanisms. GPX4, GSTP1, MGST3, SOD1, CYP4Z1, CYB5R3, GSTK1, and NAT1 showed the most heterogeneous expression within tumor regions. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous expression of these pharmacogenes may have important implications for cancer therapy due to their ability to impact drug distribution and efficacy throughout the tumor. Our results suggest that chemoresistance caused by expression of GPX4, GSTP1, MGST3, and SOD1 may be intrinsic, not acquired, since the heterogeneity is not specific to chemotherapy-treated samples or cell type. Additionally, we identified candidate chemoresistance pharmacogenes that can be further tested through focused follow-up studies.
  • Item
    Thymic Carcinomas and Second Malignancies: A Single-Center Review
    (MDPI, 2021-05-19) Badve, Sunil S.; Dougherty, Rachel; Balatico, Michael; Kesler, Kenneth A.; Loehrer, Patrick; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Surgery, School of Medicine
    Thymic carcinomas account for less than 0.01% of new cancer diagnoses annually and are more aggressive than thymomas. Autoimmune disorders have been associated with thymomas and only recently with thymic carcinomas. Second malignancies are well described after thymomas. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of second malignancies in patients with thymic carcinomas. All cases of thymic carcinomas were identified from the pathology archives of Indiana University. Histological materials were reviewed and further correlated with clinical data to identify incidence of second cancers in patients with thymic carcinomas. Histological material was available for review in 92 cases of thymic carcinoma. Clinical data were available for 85 patients. Fourteen of these (16.5%) patients had a second malignancy; these included small cell lung carcinoma, "testicular cancer", embryonal carcinoma, seminoma, breast carcinoma (two cases), prostatic adenocarcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, bladder carcinoma (two cases), renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. The latter could precede, be concurrent with, or follow the diagnosis thymic carcinoma. The incidence of second cancers in patients with thymic carcinomas is similar to that reported for thymomas. Abnormalities in immunological surveillance may be responsible for this high incidence of second malignancies in thymic tumors.
  • Item
    Cisplatin +/− rucaparib after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with triple-negative or BRCA mutated breast cancer
    (Springer Nature, 2021-03-22) Kalra, Maitri; Tong, Yan; Jones, David R.; Walsh, Tom; Danso, Michael A.; Ma, Cynthia X.; Silverman, Paula; King, Mary-Claire; Badve, Sunil S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Miller, Kathy D.; Biostatistics, School of Public Health
    Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who have residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy have a high risk of recurrence. We tested the impact of DNA-damaging chemotherapy alone or with PARP inhibition in this high-risk population. Patients with TNBC or deleterious BRCA mutation (TNBC/BRCAmut) who had >2 cm of invasive disease in the breast or persistent lymph node (LN) involvement after neoadjuvant therapy were assigned 1:1 to cisplatin alone or with rucaparib. Germline mutations were identified with BROCA analysis. The primary endpoint was 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) with 80% power to detect an HR 0.5. From Feb 2010 to May 2013, 128 patients were enrolled. Median tumor size at surgery was 1.9 cm (0-11.5 cm) with 1 (0-38) involved LN; median Residual Cancer Burden (RCB) score was 2.6. Six patients had known deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations at study entry, but BROCA identified deleterious mutations in 22% of patients with available samples. Toxicity was similar in both arms. Despite frequent dose reductions (21% of patients) and delays (43.8% of patients), 73% of patients completed planned cisplatin. Rucaparib exposure was limited with median concentration 275 (82-4694) ng/mL post-infusion on day 3. The addition of rucaparib to cisplatin did not increase 2-year DFS (54.2% cisplatin vs. 64.1% cisplatin + rucaparib; P = 0.29). In the high-risk post preoperative TNBC/BRCAmut setting, the addition of low-dose rucaparib did not improve 2-year DFS or increase the toxicity of cisplatin. Genetic testing was underutilized in this high-risk population.
  • Item
    CIBERSORT analysis of TCGA and METABRIC identifies subgroups with better outcomes in triple negative breast cancer
    (Springer Nature, 2021-02-25) Craven, Kelly E.; Gökmen‑Polar, Yesim; Badve, Sunil S.; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine
    Studies have shown that the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is associated with better prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these immune cell differences are not well delineated. In this study, analysis of hematoxylin and eosin images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer cohort failed to show a prognostic benefit of TILs in TNBC, whereas CIBERSORT analysis, which quantifies the proportion of each immune cell type, demonstrated improved overall survival in TCGA TNBC samples with increased CD8 T cells or CD8 plus CD4 memory activated T cells and in Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) TNBC samples with increased gamma delta T cells. Twenty-five genes showed mutational frequency differences between the TCGA high and low T cell groups, and many play important roles in inflammation or immune evasion (ATG2B, HIST1H2BC, PKD1, PIKFYVE, TLR3, NOTCH3, GOLGB1, CREBBP). Identification of these mutations suggests novel mechanisms by which the cancer cells attract immune cells and by which they evade or dampen the immune system during the cancer immunoediting process. This study suggests that integration of mutations with CIBERSORT analysis could provide better prediction of outcomes and novel therapeutic targets in TNBC cases.
  • Item
    Thymic Hyperplasia with Lymphoepithelial Sialadenitis (LESA)-Like Features: Strong Association with Lymphomas and Non-Myasthenic Autoimmune Diseases
    (MDPI, 2021-01-16) Porubsky, Stefan; Popovic, Zoran V.; Badve, Sunil; Banz, Yara; Berezowska, Sabina; Borchert, Dietmar; Brüggemann, Monika; Gaiser, Timo; Graeter, Thomas; Hollaus, Peter; Huettl, Katrin S.; Kotrova, Michaela; Kreft, Andreas; Kugler, Christian; Lötscher, Fabian; Möller, Burkhard; Ott, German; Preissler, Gerhard; Roessner, Eric; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ströbel, Philipp; Marx, Alexander; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine
    Thymic hyperplasia (TH) with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA)-like features (LESA-like TH) has been described as a tumor-like, benign proliferation of thymic epithelial cells and lymphoid follicles. We aimed to determine the frequency of lymphoma and autoimmunity in LESA-like TH and performed retrospective analysis of cases with LESA-like TH and/or thymic MALT-lymphoma. Among 36 patients (21 males) with LESA-like TH (age 52 years, 32–80; lesion diameter 7.0 cm, 1–14.5; median, range), five (14%) showed associated lymphomas, including four (11%) thymic MALT lymphomas and one (3%) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. One additional case showed a clonal B-cell-receptor rearrangement without evidence of lymphoma. Twelve (33%) patients (7 women) suffered from partially overlapping autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4, 11%), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 3, 8%), myasthenia gravis (n = 2, 6%), asthma (n = 2, 6%), scleroderma, Sjögren syndrome, pure red cell aplasia, Grave’s disease and anti-IgLON5 syndrome (each n = 1, 3%). Among 11 primary thymic MALT lymphomas, remnants of LESA-like TH were found in two cases (18%). In summary, LESA-like TH shows a striking association with autoimmunity and predisposes to lymphomas. Thus, a hematologic and rheumatologic workup should become standard in patients diagnosed with LESA-like TH. Radiologists and clinicians should be aware of LESA-like TH as a differential diagnosis for mediastinal mass lesions in patients with autoimmune diseases.
  • Item
    Ductal carcinoma in situ of breast: update 2019
    (Elsevier, 2019-08-28) Badve, Sunil S.; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine