Academic Studies

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This collection includes works (journal articles, conference papers, and other items) reflecting the participation of the Lilly Family School in the IUPUI Open Access Policy.


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Now showing 1 - 10 of 192
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    Giving with a purpose: the cybernetics of philanthropy
    (Center for a Voluntary Society, 1974) Von Foerster, Heinz
    This paper by Heinz Von Foerster, grounded in the logic of information theory, presents a method for getting at the basic causes of social continuity and discontinuity. It is offered as a contribution to a developing research discipline on the theory and practice of philanthrophy.
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    Egos deflating with the Great Recession: A cross-temporal meta-analysis and within-campus analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, 1982–2016
    (Elsevier, 2021) Twenge, Jean M.; Konrath, Sara H.; Cooper, A. Bell; Foster, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; McAllister, Cooper; Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
    Scholars posit that economically prosperous times should produce higher individualism and narcissism, and economically challenging times lower individualism and narcissism. This creates the possibility that narcissism among U.S. college students, which increased between 1982 and 2009, may have declined after the Great Recession. Updating a cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to 2013 (k = 164, N = 35,095) and adding two within-campus analyses to 2015 (Study 2: UC Davis, N = 58,287) and 2016 (Study 3: U South Alabama, N = 14,319) revealed a non-monotonic pattern, with increases in NPI scores between 1982 and 2008 and declines thereafter. The decline in NPI scores during and after the recession took narcissism back to their original levels in the 1980s and 1990s. Implications for the interplay between economic conditions and personality traits are discussed.
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    Charitable Giving in Married Couples: Untangling the Effects of Education and Income on Spouses’ Giving
    (Sage, 2022) Mesch, Debra J.; Osili, Una Okonkwo; Dale, Elizabeth J.; Ackerman, Jacqueline; Bergdoll, Jon; O’Connor, Heather A.; Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
    This research note looks beyond the unitary household model and analyzes the influence of household resources by gender on charitable giving. We investigate the intrahousehold variables of income and education and their effects on giving behaviors in married couples. We use data from the longitudinal Philanthropy Panel Study (2005–2017) to examine how spouses’ income and educational differences affect charitable giving behaviors and introduce fixed effects to control for unobserved heterogeneity. Initially, we find a positive relationship between both the husband’s and wife’s earned and unearned incomes and the likelihood and amount of giving by married couples. However, when fixed effects are used, we find women’s earned income to be significantly associated with all forms of giving, showing that women’s labor market earnings disproportionately influence giving behavior. Education is less of a factor in whether couples give and influences giving only when the husband has more education than the wife.
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    The million dollar donor journey: Stages of development for high-net-worth women donors
    (Wiley, 2021) Dale, Elizabeth J.; O'Connor, Heather A.; Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
    Most charitable giving research focuses on individual donors at a specific point in time and uses quantitative surveys with limited data about donors' experiences. This study uses reflective interviews to examine the life trajectories of a cohort of women donors who have made gifts of $1 million or more to causes that benefit women and girls. By drawing from developmental psychology, we illustrate the iterative process of learning about giving—shaped by life experiences—that comprise the journey to becoming a million-dollar donor. We find that, in their journeys toward making their million-dollar commitment, women donors followed a shared trajectory with distinct stages and prompts for progression. Our findings provide guidance for fundraising professionals to recognize the stages of a potential donor's readiness to give and to facilitate progression in the journey, thus increasing the potential for more large-scale gift commitments in the future and deepening the donor–fundraiser relationship.
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    Migrant-Serving Organizations: Supporting U.S. Migrants with Safe Digital Access
    (Transnational Press, 2023-05) Paarlberg, Afshan; Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
    Migrants to the United States face technology, language, legal, cultural, and economic barriers. Without direct voter influence, migrants engage with and depend upon migrant-serving organizations to build identity, address negative scrutiny, overcome obstacles, and acclimate to society. In a growing and shifted digital landscape, migrant-serving organizations are vital to providing digital accessibility amongst migrants. This paper provides a literature review regarding digital accessibility amongst migrants. It offers recommendations for migrant-serving organizations in investigating barriers and program design that support the unique digital needs of migrants.
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    The Political Embeddedness of Voluntary Action: The Case of Local Philanthropic COVID-19 Relief Funds
    (Sage, 2023) Paarlberg, Laurie E.; Ai, Jin; LePere-Schloop, Megan; Walk, Marlene; Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
    Scholars and policymakers have long been interested in the complex relationships between political institutions and voluntary collective action. However, the reciprocal nature of their relationships complicates empirical analysis: voluntary action supports democratic institutions and political institutions enable voluntary action. This article examines the relationship between political institutions and the activation of local voluntary action in the context of COVID-19 funds managed by community philanthropic organizations. We find that political engagement, policy signaling, and political competition all support the emergence of a COVID-19 fund. The findings advance our understanding of the significant role that political institutions play in activating voluntary action.
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    Evaluating Nonresponse Bias for a Hypernetwork Sample Generated from a Probability-Based Household Panel
    (HSM and UMT, 2022-10-20) Fulton, Brad R.; Bilgen, Ipek; Pineau, Vicki; Liebert, Lindsay; King, David P.; Dennis , Michael; Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
    Hypernetwork sampling aims to generate representative samples of populations for which a sample frame does not exist or is too costly to construct. This multi-level sampling method relies on nominations from one sample source (Stage 1 sample) to construct another sample (Stage 2 sample). However, nonresponse from the Stage 1 sample has the potential to produce bias in Stage 2 of the hypernetwork sample if Stage 1 respondents differ from nonrespondents. This paper examines nonresponse in a hypernetwork sample of religious congregations in the U.S. generated from a probability-based household panel that includes background information for all panelists including Stage 1 nonrespondents. This study also illustrates the benefits of constructing a hypernetwork sample by using a sample of already recruited panelists for whom information has already been collected. We find Stage 1 nonrespondents tend to be from rural areas and not from the Midwest, compared to Stage 1 respondents. Results also suggest that the impact of subsequent survey reminders on key Stage 1 estimates decreased after the third reminder during Stage 1 fielding. Additionally, we find that Stage 1 nonresponse impacts the Stage 2 estimates for congregational characteristics. Specifically, the congregations nominated by Stage 1 late respondents tend to have the following characteristics: located in the South, predominantly African American, more likely to be conservative/evangelical Protestant or black Protestant, younger, urban or suburban, helped people register to vote, less likely to have a school, and have fewer child participants. Post-survey weighting adjustment of the Stage 1 sample decreased the risk for nonresponse bias in the Stage 1 hypernetwork sample and in the Stage 2 sample of congregations.
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    More than funders: The roles of philanthropic foundations in marine conservation governance
    (Wiley, 2023-05) Blackwatters, Jeffrey E.; Betsill, Michele; Enrici, Ash; Le Cornu, Elodie; Basurto, Xavier; Gruby, Rebecca L.; Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
    Environmental governance scholars have overlooked philanthropic foundations as influential non-state actors. This omission, along with the continued growth in funding from private foundations for conservation issues, presents important questions about what foundations do in governance spaces. To address this gap, we examine The David and Lucile Packard Foundation's involvement in Fiji and Palau in the context of the Foundation's “Western Pacific Program”—a series of coastal and marine-related investments made from 1998 to 2020. We describe and analyze six governance roles that the Packard Foundation contributed to: funding, influencing agendas, capacity-building, convening and coordinating, facilitating knowledge, and rule-making and regulation. In documenting the Packard Foundation's governance roles, we provide scholars and practitioners a conceptual framework to more systematically and strategically think about foundations as more than funders. This research helps move the conversation around conservation philanthropy beyond binary conceptions of “good” versus “bad,” and, instead, toward deeper considerations about what foundations currently do within governance systems, how they engage with diverse practitioners, as well as what they can and should do to advance conservation goals.
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    Moving the Needle: Central Florida Foundation and Horizon Goals
    (Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, 2023-05-05) Danahey Janin, Pat; Paarlberg, Laurie E.
    This teaching case study is a pedagogical tool to develop the skills of graduate students in understanding how a community foundation adopts a new framework to galvanize their local community around key issues. The case is based on the decision of the leadership of the Central Florida Foundation (CFF) to adopt the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals as a framework to understand community progress on key issues such as health, employment, and housing. The case describes the internal and external efforts by the CFF to apply the global SDGs to local issues and engage community partners in their efforts. Students are asked to identify why CFF’s approach to adopting the SDFs was successful and what is necessary to keep it sustainable. Students can gain insight into the building blocks of a successful approach to community change. The text contains information about the political, economic, social, and cultural environment in Orlando, Florida and the way that CFF engages in cross-sector collaborations to improve their community.
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    Stewards with Intentionality: Legacy Foundation and Community Leadership
    (Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, 2023-05-05) Danahey Janin, Pat; Paarlberg, Laurie E.
    This teaching case study is a pedagogical tool to develop the skills of graduate students in understanding how a community foundation adopts an international framework to address longstanding local issues and stimulate cross-stakeholder collaborations. The case is based on the decision of the leadership of the Legacy Foundation, a regional community foundation, to explore how the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals could help advance their community work. The case describes the internal efforts of Legacy’s leadership to shift from a purely donor-centric focus to taking on the active role of a community convener to lead on local issues. Students are asked to assess whether Legacy’s approach to changing their donor-centric role by exploring the adoption of the SDGs would be supported by the larger community of donors, nonprofits, government, and businesses. Students can gain insight into the process of organizational change and leadership. The text contains information about the rural political, economic, social, and cultural environment in Kansas and direct video footage of board members speaking about their commitment and community.