IUPUI Research Day 2016

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A program describing the Research Day 2016 events and posters is available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/9288.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 251
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    Personal Sentiment and Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes Among Twitter Users
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Lomax, Victoria; Wendling, Brooke; Wright, Emilie
    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is growing in the United States and there is increasing controversial dialogue surrounding e-cigarettes on social media, including Twitter. With the recent spike in popularity, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to: a.) examine what Twitter users are exposed to regarding e-cigarettes, and b) identify potential ramifications for this exposure. Using predesignated inclusion and exclusion criteria, relevant articles were located using PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCOhost, and CINAHL Complete and reviewing reference lists of relevant articles. Full text, English language, peer-reviewed articles relevant to e-cigarette dialogue on Twitter were reviewed. Of the twelve studies, seven met the inclusion criteria. From our analysis of the content, two key themes were found: marketing (predominant theme) and positive personal sentiment regarding e-cigarette use. Also, within our review, common ramifications for increased marketing and positive sentiment were identified. First, the rise in marketing reaching vulnerable populations, specifically adolescents and young adults, may contribute to the growing use of e-cigarettes and influence positive perceptions of these smoking behaviors. Second, there is controversial information shared regarding the health effects of e-cigarette use. This is an emerging topic and there is relatively scant literature available related to e-cigarette dialogue on Twitter. As a result of our review, we recommend Twitter as a platform for methodically analyzing social media trends and informing health care providers of current issues regarding e-cigarettes. Although more research on the health risks of e-cigarettes is required, there is the need for the current health information on e-cigarettes to be disseminated through Twitter. Health care providers also need to discuss e-cigarette use with patients in the clinical settings. Continued surveillance of e-cigarette use and marketing, as well as examination of the necessity for marketing regulations are important as e-cigarette use becomes more prevalent.
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    Understanding Microbubble Coalescence Using High-Speed Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Method Simulation
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Zhou, Shuyi; Cao, Yuanzhi; Chen, Rou; Chen, Chuanyi; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Zhu, Likun; Sun, Tao
    Microbubble coalescence is one of the important research areas of bubble dynamics. The purpose of this research is to seek deeper understanding and relative mathematical relation on microbubble coalescence. To fulfill that, we conducted both experiments and simulations. For the part of experiment, we fabricated a microfluidic gas generator with better performance leading corresponding fluidic chemical reaction. After that we utilized ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging facility at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory to capture the gas generating and microbubble merging phenomena using high speed imaging. These experiments show how the microbubbles with the same ratio contact and merge in the reaction channel and different concentration of reactants. As for the part of simulation, we lead the simulation basing on lattice Boltzmann method to simulate microbubble coalescence in water with unequal diameter ratio. Focuses are on the effects of size inequality of parent bubbles on the coalescence geometry and time. The “coalescence preference” of coalesced bubble closer to the larger parent bubble is well captured. A power-law relation between the preferential relative distance and size inequality is consistent to the recent experimental observations. Meanwhile, the coalescence time also exhibits power-law scaling, indicating that unequal bubbles coalesce faster than equal bubbles.
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    Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy, A New Imaging Modality Available at the Indiana Center for Biological Microscopy
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Winfree, Seth; Smith, Nathaniel; Dunn, Ken; Kamocka, Malgorzata; Molitoris, Bruce
    Microscopy is a primary tool for studying 3D tissue models. Microscopy provides the only means of distinguishing the behaviors of individual cells in a heterogeneous context that obscures biochemical assays. SPIM (Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy) is new approach that is ideally suited to the unique problems involved in high-resolution imaging of 3D tissue models. In the simplest form of SPIM, a cylindrical lens is used to generate a thin lightsheet (1-10 microns) that illuminates a sample. An imaging objective lens, placed orthogonal to this lightsheet is used to collect an image of fluorescence that is selectively excited in this single illuminated plane. The sample is then rotated, and the process is repeated until a multiview dataset of the entire sample is collected. These cross-section images are then assembled to give a complete 3D image of the sample. This approach offers several advantages over conventional methods of imaging thick tissues. First, SPIM provides superior axial resolution for large field-of-view images, deconvolved SPIM volumes have isotropic 3D resolution. Second, SPIM is a “gentle” imaging approach and is better suited to imaging living tissues than either confocal or multiphoton microscopy, supporting studies of cell migration, development, signaling and physiology. Third, imaging speeds can be 30 to 200 fold faster than scanning confocal or multiphoton systems, enabling resolution of dynamic events, and rapid collection of large image datasets. We describe the assembly and customization of an OpenSPIM based lightsheet microscope (IU OpenSPIM) as a platform for developing new imaging technologies. To this end we have implemented software and hardware for multi-channel laser control and temperature and perfusion control. We present examples of highresolution, live and high speed imaging, demonstrating these capabilities. The IU OpenSPIM is a centerpiece in the development of new software for 3D tissue cytometry and a novel screening platform.
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    A Characterization of Different Spark Regimes for Ignition Delay Comparison with Conventional Spark Plugs
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Wozniak, Zachary M.; Burton, Jesse C.; Hedrick, Cameron J.; Deng, Qiuyu; Robinson, Daniel W.
    The introduction of plasma into combustion and ignition processes has continuously proved to be advantageous when compared to the conventional spark ignition in a wide range of categories. From the capability to ignite leaner mixtures and improve fuel economy to an effective reduction of hazardous emissions and ignition delay, the benefits of integrating non-equilibrium plasma can be utilized for numerous applications including hot jet ignition. Detailed design specifications for the electrode configuration, circuit schematic, and combustion rig are developed and presented. Using a CCD camera and high performance oscilloscope, this paper aims to identify, characterize, and compare the different effects of frequency and pulse width of a driver circuit on the plasma sparks quantitatively in terms of the current, voltage, and energy attributes. Four different plasma regimes are investigated with frequencies ranging from 5.44 Hz to 95.46 kHz and pulse energies ranging from 168 μJ to 14.42 J. The maximum voltage and current characteristics of the plasmas indicate a glow discharge referencing previous experiments. Future work is laid out for a comparison of the ignition progression between a non-thermal plasma system and a traditional spark with using Schlieren imaging.
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    Identifying Metabolic Pathways Producing Alkamides in Echinacea purpurea
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Williams, Jermell; Teitgen, Alicen; Minto, Robert
    Echinacea purpurea is a widely used herbal supplement that is frequently taken to relieve cold symptoms. Alkamides are a secondary metabolite found throughout the Echinacea genus that contain fatty acid chains incorporated into amides and are believed to be the bioactive agent in Echinacea. Our goal is to identify and understand the specific metabolic processes by which E. purpurea produces alkamides. In our experiment, Echinacea seedlings were grown to where the first true leaf emerged and unfurled which is when alkamide production is known to be most active. Alkamides were then extracted and taken to the GC/MS and LC/MS for analysis. Extracted alkamides were analyzed by triplequadrupole chromatography to investigate 13C labeling by glucose. Solid phase extractions were also performed to better observe fragmentation patterns. Fatty acids were also extracted to determine if fatty acids and alkamides were affected the same way by light or the lack of light, which would indicate that they are being synthesized in the same place. It was determined that neither compound experienced a synthesis decrease in the dark significant enough to support a model where acyl chains are newly created in the chloroplasts. Therefore alkamides are more likely to be made in the mitochondria. We are currently in the process of examining the spectra in order to determine the structures of the alkamides as well as any metabolic relationships.
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    Denial of Uniquely Human Characteristics for Voluntarily Childfree Individuals: Does Violating Social Norms Lead to Dehumanization?
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Whitaker, Julia; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie
    Nationally representative data consistently show that an increasing number of individuals are choosing not to have children (Time, 2013). Despite this trend, people who opt out of parenthood experience negativity (Berdahl & Moon, 2013). A recent study furthermore revealed that this negativity was driven by moral outrage (AshburnNardo, in press). Research on dehumanization includes moral sensibility as a characteristic of being human (Haslam, 2006). If those who forgo parenthood elicit moral outrage, it is possible that they are also seen as being less than human. The present research investigates the potential for dehumanization to occur in the form of denying uniquely human characteristics to voluntarily childfree individuals. In a between-subjects experiment, N participants were randomly assigned to evaluate a male vs. female married target who had chosen to have 0 vs. 2 children. They were then asked to rate the likelihood that the target was capable of experiencing uniquely human emotions (e.g., admiration, despair), as well as the likelihood that essential human traits (e.g., warm, irresponsible) and characteristics (e.g., rational, culturally refined) described the target. Statistical analyses are currently underway and are expected to reveal that, relative to targets who have children, targets that chose not to have children will be rated significantly less likely to experience uniquely human secondary emotions, to have complex cognitions and to have uniquely human traits. Target gender will be explored as a potential moderator of these effects. Historically, dehumanization has led to dangerous outcomes for targets. The present findings could suggest that a significant and growing portion of the population could be subject to discrimination in social and workplace situations.
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    Ab initio study of anisotropic mechanical properties of LiCoO2 during lithium intercalation and deintercalation process
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Wu, Linmin; Zhang, Jing
    The mechanical properties of LixCoO2 under various Li concentrations and associated anisotropy have been systematically studied using the first principles method. During the lithium intercalation process, the Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and ultimate strength increase with increasing lithium concentration. Strong anisotropy of mechanical properties between a-axis and c-axis in LixCoO2 is identified at low lithium concentrations, and the anisotropy decreases with increasing lithium concentration. The observed lithium concentration dependence and anisotropy are explained by analyzing the charge transfer using Bader charge analysis, bond order analysis, and bond strength by investigating partial density of states and charge density difference. With the decrease of Li concentration, the charge depletion in the bonding regions increases, indicating a weaker Co-O bond strength. Additionally, the Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and toughness are obtained by simulating ab initio tensile tests. From the simulated stress-strain curves, LixCoO2 shows the highest toughness, which is in contraction with Pugh criterion prediction based on elastic properties only.
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    Testing Therapeutic Candidates in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) McConkey, Shannon; Yang, Jenny; Bacallao, Robert; Berbari, Nicolas F.
    Approximately 1 in 500 middle aged people in the United States will be diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), an inherited genetic disorder that results in extreme cysts on the kidneys. PKD eventually leads to end-stage kidney failure and current treatments are limited to dialysis or transplantation. Thus, a pharmacological approach to prevent, delay, or slow the progression of PKD would revolutionize treatment and improve mortality. Interestingly, many proteins associated with PKD have been found in and around the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. Cilia are small microtubule-based cellular appendages found on the surface of most cell types in the human body and are broadly classified as either “motile” or “primary” (immotile). Primary cilia are known to be mechano- and environmental sensors, and play a critical role in cell-to-cell communication. The aim of this proposed research is to use potential therapeutics identified in silico and in vitro in animal models of PKD to determine if the compound can delay or prevent cystogenesis. Here we test Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in an animal model of rapidly progressing cyst formation for its ability to ameliorate the phenotype. Further research directed at understanding the cilia, cell-cycle, and cilia-mediated signalling activity will hopefully provide important insights into the mechanisms of renal cyst pathogenesis and lead to better approaches for therapeutic intervention for PKD.
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    (Dis)Agreement in Parent-Child Perceptions of Injustice and Their Relationship to Pain Outcomes
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Wuest, David G.; Miller, Megan M.; Scott, Eric. L.; Trost, Zina; Hirsh, Adam T.
    Perceiving one’s pain as unjust and thinking about pain in a catastrophic manner are linked to worse outcomes in children with chronic pain. Dyads where the child catastrophized more than the parent experienced particularly poor outcomes in previous research. We investigated the concordance between parent and child injustice perceptions and its relationship to pain outcomes. 139 patients (age=15.4±2.1; 71.9% female) attending the pain clinic at Riley Children’s Hospital completed measures of perceived injustice, pain, and QOL. Parents completed a measure of perceived injustice about their child’s pain. Parent-child dyads were categorized into one of four groups based on concordance of injustice perceptions: (1) concordant high, (2) concordant low, (3) discordant high parent (P) – low child (C), and (4) discordant low P – high C. Parent injustice perceptions were significantly higher than child perceptions (t(138)=5.80, p<.001, d=.50). ANOVAs identified significant group differences for pain intensity (F(3,138)=2.80, p<.05, η2=.06) and QOL (F(3,138)=15.11, p<.01, η2=.25). For pain intensity, discordant low P – high C dyads reported the highest pain, and significantly higher pain than discordant high P – low C dyads (mean difference [MD]=1.94, p<.05). Concordant high dyads reported the second highest pain. A similar pattern emerged for QOL. Discordant low P – high C dyads reported the worst QOL, and significantly worse QOL than concordant high dyads (MD=-10.22, p<.01), concordant low dyads (MD=-23.70, p<.01), and discordant high P – low C dyads (MD=-28.97, p<.01). Concordant high dyads reported the second worse QOL. Overall, dyads where the child endorsed high injustice perceptions, regardless of parental perceptions, experienced worse pain and QOL, with the worst outcomes observed for discordant dyads (low P – high C). Children in low P – high C dyads may feel invalidated and, thus, use maladaptive strategies in an attempt to communicate the severity of their pain. Research is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying these relationships.
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    The translational regulator dFMRP interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor to regulate apoptosis in Drosophila
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Zic, Jessica Z.; Sherwood, Jacqueline E.; Tessier, Charles R.
    Posttranscriptional gene regulation is required for all aspects of cellular and tissue development and is a major mechanism underlying many diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. The translational repressor fragile x mental retardation protein (FMRP) is ubiquitously expressed throughout development but is silenced in Fragile X Syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder. Interestingly, high levels of FMRP have recently been identified in human metastatic breast cancer. FMRP overexpression in these patients is directly correlated with increased lung metastasis suggesting a direct role for translational regulation both in cell proliferation and in invasive cell migration. Interestingly, however, FMRP can promote both proliferation and apoptosis. To dissect FMRP’s role in cancer development and progression, we are exploiting the powerful genetic system of Drosophila. Drosophila is an excellent model organism for human diseases associated with FMRP due to the strong evolutionary conservation of the fragile x mental retardation gene 1 which encodes this protein. dFMRP was overexpressed in the Drosophila imaginal wing disc, an epithelial tissue model. Contrary to a role in proliferation, overexpression of dFMRP leads to obvious cell loss in the adult wing and an increase in apoptotic markers. Using a combinatorial genetic screen, we have identified genes which are able to suppress this apoptotic phenotype and thus may be important for FMRP-­‐dependent tumorigenesis. Our focus is now on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway since blocking this mechanism is able to completely rescue the dFMRP-­‐overexpression wing defects. Clonal analysis reveals that dFMRP overexpressing cells survive their dFMRP-­induced apoptotic programming when co-­‐expressing a dominant negative form of EGFR. Additional clonal analyses are being used to explore the potential significance of this survival on tumor formation and metastasis.