Department of Exercise & Kinesiology Works

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 94
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    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Primary Motor Cortex over Multiple Days Improves Motor Learning of a Complex Overhand Throwing Task
    (MDPI, 2023-10-10) Pantovic, Milan; Lima de Albuquerque, Lidio; Mastrantonio, Sierra; Pomerantz, Austin S.; Wilkins, Erik W.; Riley, Zachary A.; Guadagnoli, Mark A.; Poston, Brach; Exercise & Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) improves motor learning in relatively simple motor tasks performed with the hand and arm. However, it is unknown if tDCS can improve motor learning in complex motor tasks involving whole-body coordination with significant endpoint accuracy requirements. The primary purpose was to determine the influence of tDCS on motor learning over multiple days in a complex over-hand throwing task. This study utilized a double-blind, randomized, SHAM-controlled, between-subjects experimental design. Forty-six young adults were allocated to either a tDCS group or a SHAM group and completed three experimental sessions on three consecutive days at the same time of day. Each experimental session was identical and consisted of overhand throwing trials to a target in a pre-test block, five practice blocks performed simultaneously with 20 min of tDCS, and a post-test block. Overhand throwing performance was quantified as the endpoint error. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to obtain motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseus muscle to quantify changes in M1 excitability due to tDCS. Endpoint error significantly decreased over the three days of practice in the tDCS group but not in the SHAM group. MEP amplitude significantly increased in the tDCS group, but the MEP increases were not associated with increases in motor learning. These findings indicate that tDCS applied over multiple days can improve motor learning in a complex motor tasks in healthy young adults.
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    The Influence of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Fatigue Resistance
    (MDPI, 2023-08-21) De Guzman, Kayla A.; Young, Richard J.; Contini, Valentino; Clinton, Eliza; Hitchcock, Ashley; Riley, Zachary A.; Poston, Brach; Exercise & Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    Previous research has shown that some forms of non-invasive brain stimulation can increase fatigue resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on the time to task failure (TTF) of a precision grip task. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, SHAM-controlled, within-subjects design. Twenty-six young adults completed two experimental sessions (tACS and SHAM) with a 7-day washout period between sessions. Each session involved a fatiguing isometric contraction of the right hand with a precision grip with either a tACS or SHAM stimulation applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) simultaneously. For the fatiguing contraction, the participants matched an isometric target force of 20% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force until task failure. Pre- and post-MVCs were performed to quantify the force decline due to fatigue. Accordingly, the dependent variables were the TTF and MVC force decline as well as the average EMG activity, force error, and standard deviation (SD) of force during the fatiguing contractions. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in any of the dependent variables between the tACS and SHAM conditions (p value range: 0.256–0.820). These findings suggest that tACS does not increase the TTF during fatiguing contractions in young adults.
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    Exemplifying Inclusive Excellence: How Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Leads by Example in Kinesiology
    (AKA, 2022-11) Urtel, Mark; Keith, NiCole; Bahamonde, Rafael E.; Exercise & Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    This article documents the highlights achieved by the Department of Kinesiology at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis over the span of 25 years that culminated with their being awarded the Inclusive Excellence award as sponsored by the American Kinesiology Association. Furthermore, this journey was presented using the special issue focus on leadership. Presented experiences occurred within the typical faculty understanding of teaching, research, and service. Recognition was given to the university and campus that hosts this department as it related to the overall diversity and inclusion culture developed on the broader scale, as this is important to acknowledge. This journey could inform or inspire other similar units as they strive to enhance diversity and inclusive excellence in their respective institutions.
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    Adapted Dance and Individuals With Down Syndrome: A Phenomenological Approach
    (Sagamore, 2022-06-01) Swinford, Rachel; Noerr, Kyra; Exercise & Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) often experience lower levels of physical activity (PA) and social participation when compared to peers without DS. The purpose was to examine the lived experience of participating in the dance program and interpret the meaning of the dance program. Dancers participated in a 6-week adapted dance program and were interviewed after the program. This study investigated the lived experience of a 6-week adapted dance program for 20 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) using interpretive phenomenology. Dancer interviews revealed a primary theme of dancers experiencing joy and happiness while dancing. This research helps advocate opportunities for individuals with DS to experience dance as a social, physical, and intellectual activity. Findings can support future PA and sports initiatives for individuals with intellectual disabilities.
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    Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy Research Agenda: Rationale for the Development and the Intent for Use
    (APTA Geriatrics, 2022-04) VanSwearingen, Jessie; Knox, Sara; Lowry, Kristin A.; Allison, Leslie K.; Ciolek , Cathy; Miller, Kenneth L.; Avin, Keith G.; Hartley, Greg W.; Exercise & Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    The rationale for the development and the intent for use of a research agenda for the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy is described. The reasons for the research agenda for geriatric physical therapy are (1) to have a broad representation of the research conducted by physical therapist(s) working with older adults, (2) to provide guidance and assistance to emerging investigators to aid the trajectory of a research career, and (3) as a document to engage potential funding agencies, foundations, and individuals in support of physical therapist-conducted research. The design was based on the Research Agenda for Physical Therapy (APTA document), formatted to be consistent with the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, priority ratings for the research statements, and specific examples of research questions for each category of the Research Agenda. The Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy Research Agenda generated to be a living document, with revisions to research questions and priority ratings expected in the future to enable the agenda to adapt to changes in science, practice, workforce, education, and health policy.
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    Skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise is reduced in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension
    (American Physiological Society, 2022-10-18) Long, Gary Marshall; Troutman, Ashley D.; Gray , Derrick A.; Fisher, Amanda J.; Lahm, Tim; Coggan, Andrew R.; Brown, Mary Beth; Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by exercise intolerance. Muscle blood flow may be reduced during exercise in PAH; however, this has not been directly measured. Therefore, we investigated blood flow during exercise in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼200 g) were injected with 60 mg/kg MCT (MCT, n = 23) and vehicle control (saline; CON, n = 16). Maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V̇o2max) and voluntary running were measured before PH induction. Right ventricle (RV) morphology and function were assessed via echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic measures. Treadmill running at 50% V̇o2max was performed by a subgroup of rats (MCT, n = 8; CON, n = 7). Injection of fluorescent microspheres determined muscle blood flow via photo spectroscopy. MCT demonstrated a severe phenotype via RV hypertrophy (Fulton index, 0.61 vs. 0.31; P < 0.001), high RV systolic pressure (51.5 vs. 22.4 mmHg; P < 0.001), and lower V̇o2max (53.2 vs. 71.8 mL·min−1·kg−1; P < 0.0001) compared with CON. Two-way ANOVA revealed exercising skeletal muscle blood flow relative to power output was reduced in MCT compared with CON (P < 0.001), and plasma lactate was increased in MCT (10.8 vs. 4.5 mmol/L; P = 0.002). Significant relationships between skeletal blood flow and blood lactate during exercise were observed for individual muscles (r = −0.58 to −0.74; P < 0.05). No differences in capillarization were identified. Skeletal muscle blood flow is significantly reduced in experimental PH. Reduced blood flow during exercise may be, at least in part, consequent to reduced exercise intensity in PH. This adds further evidence of peripheral muscle dysfunction and exercise intolerance in PAH.
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    Predictors of Physical Activity in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Path Analysis
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2022) Kaleth, Anthony S.; Bigatti, Silvia M.; Slaven, James E.; Kelly, Nicholas; Ang, Dennis C.; Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    Background/objective: The aim of this study was to identify psychological factors that influence moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods: In this secondary data analysis, 170 patients received personalized exercise plans and completed baseline and follow-up assessments of self-reported physical activity at weeks 12, 24, and 36. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the predictive strengths of psychological factors (exercise self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and intention) on MVPA participation. Results: Using a threshold increase in MVPA of 10 or greater metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET h/wk), 3 groups were defined based on subjects who achieved a minimum increase of 10 MET h/wk that was sustained for at least 12 weeks (SUS-PA), achieved an increase of 10 MET h/wk that was not sustained for at least 12 weeks (UNSUS-PA), and did not achieve an increase of 10 MET h/wk (LO-PA). Increases in exercise self-efficacy and intention and reductions in perceived barriers were associated with increased volume of PA, showing the greatest change in the SUS-PA, followed by UNSUS-PA. For the LO-PA group, there was no change in exercise self-efficacy, a decrease in intention, and an increase in barriers. Using path analysis, exercise self-efficacy and perceived barriers were associated with higher volumes of physical activity via greater intention to engage in MVPA. Conclusions: For patients with fibromyalgia, exercise self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and intention to exercise are important constructs for increasing physical activity. Our findings provide guidance for practitioners who seek to promote physical activity in fibromyalgia and suggestions for researchers aiming to improve prediction models.
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    Creating Authentic Assessments Through Controversy
    (IUScholarWorks, 2022-12-21) Scherzinger, Lamia Nuseibeh; Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
    We are surrounded by controversy—politics, religion, diets, and even science are all up for debate in our 24/7 world of social media and the internet. With this controversy comes a lot of misinformation and competition with what our students might otherwise be learning in our classrooms. I know this intimately, since I teach fitness and nutrition courses, two topics widely addressed by internet “experts” who continually contradict what I teach in my class. Whereas some may say this makes an instructor’s job more difficult, I have decided to rise to the challenge and use controversy to enhance my students’ learning. By using an assortment of technologies and platforms—web searches, Twitter, TikTok, and more—I have been able to move beyond the classroom to engage my students in real-world problems, a strategy that results in more authentic assessments.
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    Research Bites: Let’s Consider Nordic Walking!
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2023) Yoke, Mary M.; Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
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    Research Bites: Do activity trackers and smartphone apps increase physical activity in adults?
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2022) Yoke, Mary; Kinesiology, School of Health and Human Sciences