Regional 4D Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Strain Predicts Cardiomyopathy Progression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

dc.contributor.authorEarl, Conner C.
dc.contributor.authorJauregui, Alexa M.
dc.contributor.authorLin, Guang
dc.contributor.authorHor, Kan N.
dc.contributor.authorMarkham, Larry W.
dc.contributor.authorSoslow, Jonathan H.
dc.contributor.authorGoergen, Craig J.
dc.contributor.departmentPediatrics, School of Medicine
dc.description.abstractBackground: Cardiomyopathy (CMP) is the leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Characterization of disease trajectory can be challenging, especially in the early stage of CMP where onset and clinical progression may vary. Traditional metrics from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging such as LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) and LGE (late gadolinium enhancement) are often insufficient for assessing disease trajectory. We hypothesized that strain patterns from a novel 4D (3D+time) CMR regional strain analysis method can be used to predict the rate of DMD CMP progression. Methods: We compiled 115 short-axis cine CMR image stacks for n=40 pediatric DMD patients (13.6±4.2 years) imaged yearly for 3 consecutive visits and computed regional strain metrics using custom-built feature tracking software. We measured regional strain parameters by determining the relative change in the localized 4D endocardial surface mesh using end diastole as the initial reference frame. Results: We first separated patients into two cohorts based on their initial CMR: LVEF≥55% (n=28, normal cohort) and LVEF<55% (n=12, abnormal cohort). Using LVEF decrease measured two years following the initial scan, we further subclassified these cohorts into slow (ΔLVEF%≤5) or fast (ΔLVEF%>5) progression groups for both the normal cohort (n=12, slow; n=15, fast) and the abnormal cohort (n=8, slow; n=4, fast). There was no statistical difference between the slow and fast progression groups in standard biomarkers such as LVEF, age, or LGE status. However, basal circumferential strain (Ecc) late diastolic strain rate and basal surface area strain (Ea) late diastolic strain rate magnitude were significantly decreased in fast progressors in both normal and abnormal cohorts (p<0.01, p=0.04 and p<0.01, p=0.02, respectively). Peak Ea and Ecc magnitudes were also decreased in fast progressors, though these only reached statistical significance in the normal cohort (p<0.01, p=0.24 and p<0.01, p=0.18, respectively). Conclusion: Regional strain metrics from 4D CMR can be used to differentiate between slow or fast CMP progression in a longitudinal DMD cohort. These results demonstrate that 4D CMR strain is useful for early identification of CMP progression in patients with DMD. Clinical Perspective: Cardiomyopathy is the number one cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but the onset and progression of the disease are variable and heterogeneous. In this study, we used a novel 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance regional strain analysis method to evaluate 40 pediatric Duchenne patients over three consecutive annual visits. From our analysis, we found that peak systolic strain and late diastolic strain rate were early indicators of cardiomyopathy progression. This method offers promise for early detection and monitoring, potentially improving patient outcomes through timely intervention and management.
dc.identifier.citationEarl CC, Jauregui AM, Lin G, et al. Regional 4D Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Strain Predicts Cardiomyopathy Progression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Preprint. medRxiv. 2023;2023.11.07.23298238. Published 2023 Nov 8. doi:10.1101/2023.11.07.23298238
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationalen
dc.subjectDuchenne muscular dystrophy
dc.subjectLeft ventricular function
dc.subjectDiastolic dysfunction
dc.titleRegional 4D Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Strain Predicts Cardiomyopathy Progression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
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