Contracting and Monitoring Relationships for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

dc.contributor.authorCarroll, Aaron E.
dc.contributor.authorDiMeglio, Linda A.
dc.contributor.authorStein, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorMarrero, David G.
dc.description.abstractBackground: Adolescents are developmentally in a period of transition—from children cared for by their parents to young adults capable of self-care, independent judgment, and self-directed problem solving. We wished to develop a behavioral contract for adolescent diabetes management that addresses some negotiable points of conflict within the parent–child relationship regarding self-monitoring and then assess its effectiveness in a pilot study as part of a novel cell phone–based glucose monitoring system. Methods: In the first phase of this study we used semistructured interview techniques to determine the major sources of diabetes-related conflict in the adolescent–parent relationship, to identify factors that could facilitate or inhibit control, and to determine reasonable goals and expectations. These data were then used to inform development of a behavioral contract that addressed the negotiable sources of conflict between parents and their adolescent. The second phase of this research was a 3-month pilot study to measure how a novel cell phone glucose monitoring system would support the contract and have an effect on glucose management, family conflict, and quality of life. Results: Interviews were conducted with 10 adolescent–caregiver pairs. The major theme of contention was nagging about diabetes management. Two additional themes emerged as points of negotiation for the behavioral contract: glucose testing and contact with the diabetes clinical team. Ten adolescent–parent pairs participated in the pilot test of the system and contract. There was a significant improvement in the Diabetes Self-Management Profile from 55.2 to 61.1 (P < 0.01). A significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c also occurred, from 8.1% at the start of the trial to 7.6% at 3 months (P < 0.04). Conclusions: This study confirms previous findings that mobile technologies do offer significant potential in improving the care of adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, behavioral contracts may be an important adjunct to reduce nagging and improve outcomes with behavioral changes.en_US
dc.identifier.citationCarroll, A. E., DiMeglio, L. A., Stein, S., & Marrero, D. G. (2011). Contracting and monitoring relationships for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a pilot study. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 13(5), 543-549.en_US
dc.subjecttype 1 diabetesen_US
dc.subjectdiabetes managementen_US
dc.subjectglucose monitoringen_US
dc.titleContracting and Monitoring Relationships for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Studyen_US
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