David G. Marrero

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The 2013 inaugural recipient of the Bantz-Petronio Translating Research into Practice Award, David G. Marrero is the J.O. Ritchey Endowed Professor of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine. His translational research into diabetes identification and management has shown that improving risk factors depends upon tailoring disease management programs to specific populations to better address health disparities. In a practical application of this work, he and his colleagues have developed a tablet-based program that explains what risks of cardiovascular disease an individual person has and then educates on reducing those risks. He also implemented an innovative and successful program at the YMCA to assist in the identification of persons at risk for diabetes followed by educational and behavioral interventions focused on diet and exercise. This program is now the subject of a CMS demonstration project.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 62
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    Educational disparities in health behaviors among patients with diabetes: the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study
    (BioMed Central, 2007-10-29) Karter, Andrew J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Brown, Arleen F.; Duru, O. Kenrik; Gregg, Edward W.; Gary, Tiffany L.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Marrero, David G.; Waitzfelder, Beth; Herman, William H.; Piette, John D.; Safford, Monika M.; Ettner, Susan L.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine
    Background Our understanding of social disparities in diabetes-related health behaviors is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine if having less education is associated with poorer diabetes-related health behaviors. Methods This observational study was based on a cohort of 8,763 survey respondents drawn from ~180,000 patients with diabetes receiving care from 68 provider groups in ten managed care health plans across the United States. Self-reported survey data included individual educational attainment ("education") and five diabetes self-care behaviors among individuals for whom the behavior would clearly be indicated: foot exams (among those with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or a history of foot ulcers); self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG; among insulin users only); smoking; exercise; and certain diabetes-related health seeking behaviors (use of diabetes health education, website, or support group in last 12 months). Predicted probabilities were modeled at each level of self-reported educational attainment using hierarchical logistic regression models with random effects for clustering within health plans. Results Patients with less education had significantly lower predicted probabilities of being a non-smoker and engaging in regular exercise and health-seeking behaviors, while SMBG and foot self-examination did not vary by education. Extensive adjustment for patient factors revealed no discernable confounding effect on the estimates or their significance, and most education-behavior relationships were similar across sex, race and other patient characteristics. The relationship between education and smoking varied significantly across age, with a strong inverse relationship in those aged 25–44, modest for those ages 45–64, but non-evident for those over 65. Intensity of disease management by the health plan and provider communication did not alter the examined education-behavior relationships. Other measures of socioeconomic position yielded similar findings. Conclusion The relationship between educational attainment and health behaviors was modest in strength for most behaviors. Over the life course, the cumulative effect of reduced practice of multiple self-care behaviors among less educated patients may play an important part in shaping the social health gradient.
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    Intervention Delivery Matters: What Mothers at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Want in a Diabetes Prevention Program—Results from a Comparative Effectiveness Trial
    (Springer Nature, 2020-08-08) Palmer, Kelly N. B.; Garr Barry, Valene E.; Marrero, David G.; McKinney, Brett M.; Graves, Anne N.; Winters, Chelsy K.; Hannon, Tamara S.; Medicine, School of Medicine
    Participants in the ENCOURAGE Healthy Families Study, a family-focused, modified Diabetes Prevention Program, reported challenges to and preferences for engaging in a diabetes prevention program. Challenges with flexible intervention delivery, accessibility, the traditional group-based format, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure risk can be mitigated by participant preferences for one-on-one, virtual/online intervention delivery.
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    Depressive Symptoms, Antidepressant Medication Use, and Inflammatory Markers in the Diabetes Prevention Program
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2018-02) de Groot, Mary; Marrero, David; Mele, Lisa Mele; Doyle, Todd; Schwartz, Frank; Mather, Kieren J.; Goldberg, Ronald; Price, David W.; Ma, Yong; Knowler, William C.; Medicine, School of Medicine
    OBJECTIVE: Antidepressant medication use (ADM) has been shown to predict diabetes. This article assessed the role of inflammatory markers in this relationship within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). METHODS: DPP participants randomized to metformin (MET), life-style intervention (ILS), or placebo (PLB) were assessed for depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) annually, ADM use semiannually, serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin 6 [IL-6]) at baseline and year 1, and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) semiannually (for 3.2 years). RESULTS: At baseline (N = 3187), M (SD) body mass index was 34 (6) kg/m and the median (interquartile range) BDI score was 3 (1-7). One hundred eighty-one (5.7%) reported ADM use and 328 (10%) had BDI scores of 11 or higher. CRP and IL-6 levels did not differ by treatment group. Baseline ADM, but not BDI score, was associated with higher levels of baseline CRP adjusted for demographic, anthropometric variables, and other medications (20% higher, p = .01). Year 1 CRP decreased for non-ADM users in the MET (-13.2%) and ILS (-34%) groups and ADM users in the ILS group (-29%). No associations were found with IL-6. CRP and continuous use of ADM predicted incident T2DM in the PLB group. In the ILS group, continuous and intermittent ADM, but not CRP, predicted T2DM. In the MET group, CRP predicted incident T2DM. CRP did not mediate the risk of T2DM with ADM use in any group. CONCLUSIONS: ADM was significantly associated with elevated CRP and incident T2DM. In the PLB group, ADM and CRP independently predicted onset of T2DM; however, CRP did not significantly mediate the effect of ADM.
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    Comparison of Commercial and Self-Initiated Weight Loss Programs in People With Prediabetes: A Randomized Control Trial
    (American Public Health Association, 2016-05) Marrero, David G.; Palmer, Kelly N. B.; Phillips, Erin O.; Miller-Kovach, Karen; Foster, Gary D.; Saha, Chandan K.; Medicine, School of Medicine
    To determine if a widely available weight-management program (Weight Watchers) could achieve sufficient weight loss in persons with prediabetes compared with a Diabetes Prevention Program-based individual counseling program supported by National Diabetes Education Program materials. METHODS: We conducted an individual, randomized intervention trial in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2013 to 2014, in 225 persons with prediabetes. We compared the Weight Watchers weight-management program (n = 112) with Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes, a program developed by the National Diabetes Education Program. Outcomes were weight and metabolic markers measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: Intervention participants lost significantly more weight than controls at 6 months (5.5% vs 0.8%) and 12 months (5.5% vs 0.2%; both P < .001). The intervention group also had significantly greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than did controls. CONCLUSIONS: A large weight-management program is effective for achieving lifestyle changes associated with diabetes prevention. Such programs could significantly increase the availability of diabetes prevention programs worldwide making an immediate and significant public health impact.
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    An informatics approach to medication adherence assessment and improvement using clinical, billing, and patient-entered data
    (Oxford University Press, 2014-05) Dixon, Brian E.; Jabour, Abdulrahman M.; O’Kelly Phillips, Erin; Marrero, David G.; BioHealth Informatics, School of Informatics and Computing
    The aim of this study was to describe an integrated informatics approach to aggregating and displaying clinically relevant data that can identify problems with medication adherence and facilitate patient-provider communication about strategies to improve medication use. We developed a clinical dashboard within an electronic health record (EHR) system that uses data from three sources: the medical record, pharmacy claims, and a personal health record. The data are integrated to inform clinician-patient discussions about medication adherence. Whereas prior research on assessing patterns of medication adherence focused on a single approach using the EHR, pharmacy data, or patient-entered data, we present an approach that integrates multiple electronic data sources increasingly found in practice. Medication adherence is a complex challenge that requires patient and provider team input, necessitating an integrated approach using advanced EHR, clinical decision support, and patient-controlled technologies. Future research should focus on integrated strategies to provide patients and providers with the right combination of informatics tools to help them adequately address the challenge of adherence to complex medication therapies.
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    Effects of a Community-based Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Physical Activity Among Economically Disadvantaged Adults With Prediabetes
    (Taylor and Francis, 2016) Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.; School of Nursing
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    A qualitative assessment of barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in western Kenya
    (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10) Kunapareddy, Catherine June; Nyandiko, Winstone; Inui, Thomas; Ayaya, Samwel; Marrero, David G.; Vreeman, Rachel; Department of Pediatrics, IU School of Medicine
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires nearly perfect adherence to be effective. This study aims to identify key factors identified by HIV-infected adolescents on ART as contributing to medication adherence in western Kenya. Using a qualitative study design, three adolescent focus groups discussions were conducted at an urban and rural clinic site in western Kenya. The study population included HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART through the USAID-AMPATH HIV care system. A trained facilitator conducted groups in Kiswahili using a semi-structured interview guide probing multiple aspects of experience of taking medicines. Transcribed focus group dialogues were analyzed using constant comparison, progressive coding, and triangulation. The adolescents described a context of negative societal beliefs about HIV, necessitating a lifestyle of secrecy and minimizing the information shared about HIV or ART. Assessing and addressing adolescents' fears and behaviors regarding medication secrecy and disclosure may enable more accurate monitoring of adherence and development of intervention strategies.
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    Diabetes Care and Research: What Should Be the Next Frontier?
    (American Diabetes Association, 2016-02) Marrero, David G.; Department of Medicine, IU School of Medicine
    EDITOR'S NOTE: This article is adapted from the address of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) President, Health Care and Education, given in June 2015 at the Association's 75th Scientific Sessions in Boston, Mass. A webcast of this speech is available for viewing at the ADA website (http://professional.diabetes.org/webcasts).
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    Innovations in healthcare delivery and policy: Implications for the role of the psychologist in preventing and treating diabetes
    (APA, 2016-10) Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Marrero, David; Department of Medicine, IU School of Medicine
    Although the biomedical model has dominated U.S. health care for more than a century, it has failed to adequately address current U.S. health care challenges, including the treatment and prevention of chronic disease; the epidemic rise in diabetes is one important example. In response, newer models of health care have been developed that address patients' mental and physical health concerns by multidisciplinary care teams that place the patient and family in the center of shared decision making. These new models of care offer many important opportunities for psychologists to play a larger role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. However, for psychology's role to be fully realized, both external and internal challenges must be addressed. This will require psychologists to become more interdisciplinary, more familiar with the larger health care culture, more willing to expand their skill sets, and more collaborative with other health disciplines both from a patient-care and a larger advocacy perspective.
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    A Randomized Controlled Trial Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program to a University Worksite, Ohio, 2012-2014
    (Preventing Chronic Disease, 2015) Weinhold, Kellie R.; Miller, Carla K.; Marrero, David G.; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Focht, Brian C.; Gascon, Gregg M.; Indiana University School of Medicine
    INTRODUCTION: Working adults spend much time at the workplace, an ideal setting for wellness programs targeting weight loss and disease prevention. Few randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of worksite diabetes prevention programs. This study evaluated the efficacy of a worksite lifestyle intervention on metabolic and behavioral risk factors compared with usual care. METHODS: A pretest-posttest control group design with 3-month follow-up was used. Participants with prediabetes were recruited from a university worksite and randomized to receive a 16-week lifestyle intervention (n = 35) or usual care (n = 34). Participants were evaluated at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Dietary intake was measured by a food frequency questionnaire and level of physical activity by accelerometers. Repeated measures analysis of variance compared the change in outcomes between and within groups. RESULTS: Mean (standard error [SE]) weight loss was greater in the intervention (-5.5% [0.6%]) than in the control (-0.4% [0.5%]) group (P < .001) postintervention and was sustained at 3-month follow-up (P < .001). Mean (SE) reductions in fasting glucose were greater in the intervention (-8.6 [1.6] mg/dL) than in the control (-3.7 [1.6] mg/dL) group (P = .02) postintervention; both groups had significant glucose reductions at 3-month follow-up (P < .001). In the intervention group, the intake of total energy and the percentage of energy from all fats, saturated fats, and trans fats decreased, and the intake of dietary fiber increased (all P < .01) postintervention. CONCLUSION: The worksite intervention improved metabolic and behavioral risk factors among employees with prediabetes. The long-term impact on diabetes prevention and program sustainability warrant further investigation.