Chronic neuropsychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2: Protocol and methods from the Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium

dc.contributor.authorde Erausquin, Gabriel A.
dc.contributor.authorSnyder, Heather
dc.contributor.authorBrugha, Traolach S.
dc.contributor.authorSeshadri, Sudha
dc.contributor.authorCarrillo, Maria
dc.contributor.authorSagar, Rajesh
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Yueqin
dc.contributor.authorNewton, Charles
dc.contributor.authorTartaglia, Carmela
dc.contributor.authorTeunissen, Charlotte
dc.contributor.authorHåkanson, Krister
dc.contributor.authorAkinyemi, Rufus
dc.contributor.authorPrasad, Kameshwar
dc.contributor.authorD'Avossa, Giovanni
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez-Aleman, Gabriela
dc.contributor.authorHosseini, Akram
dc.contributor.authorVavougios, George D.
dc.contributor.authorSachdev, Perminder
dc.contributor.authorBankart, John
dc.contributor.authorOle Mors, Niels Peter
dc.contributor.authorLipton, Richard
dc.contributor.authorKatz, Mindy
dc.contributor.authorFox, Peter T.
dc.contributor.authorKatshu, Mohammad Zia
dc.contributor.authorIyengar, M. Sriram
dc.contributor.authorWeinstein, Galit
dc.contributor.authorSohrabi, Hamid R.
dc.contributor.authorJenkins, Rachel
dc.contributor.authorStein, Dan J.
dc.contributor.authorHugon, Jacques
dc.contributor.authorMavreas, Venetsanos
dc.contributor.authorBlangero, John
dc.contributor.authorCruchaga, Carlos
dc.contributor.authorKrishna, Murali
dc.contributor.authorWadoo, Ovais
dc.contributor.authorBecerra, Rodrigo
dc.contributor.authorZwir, Igor
dc.contributor.authorLongstreth, William T.
dc.contributor.authorKroenenberg, Golo
dc.contributor.authorEdison, Paul
dc.contributor.authorMukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta
dc.contributor.authorStaufenberg, Ekkehart
dc.contributor.authorFigueredo-Aguiar, Mariana
dc.contributor.authorYécora, Agustín
dc.contributor.authorVaca, Fabiana
dc.contributor.authorZamponi, Hernan P.
dc.contributor.authorLo Re, Vincenzina
dc.contributor.authorMajid, Abdul
dc.contributor.authorSundarakumar, Jonas
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez, Hector M.
dc.contributor.authorGeerlings, Mirjam I.
dc.contributor.authorSkoog, Ingmar
dc.contributor.authorSalmoiraghi, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorBoneschi, Filippo Martinelli
dc.contributor.authorPatel, Vibuthi N.
dc.contributor.authorSantos, Juan M.
dc.contributor.authorArroyo, Guillermo Rivera
dc.contributor.authorMoreno, Antonio Caballero
dc.contributor.authorFelix, Pascal
dc.contributor.authorGallo, Carla
dc.contributor.authorArai, Hidenori
dc.contributor.authorYamada, Masahito
dc.contributor.authorIwatsubo, Takeshi
dc.contributor.authorSharma, Malveeka
dc.contributor.authorChakraborty, Nandini
dc.contributor.authorFerreccio, Catterina
dc.contributor.authorAkena, Dickens
dc.contributor.authorBrayne, Carol
dc.contributor.authorMaestre, Gladys
dc.contributor.authorWilliams Blangero, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorBrusco, Luis I.
dc.contributor.authorSiddarth, Prabha
dc.contributor.authorHughes, Timothy M.
dc.contributor.authorRamírez Zuñiga, Alfredo
dc.contributor.authorKambeitz, Joseph
dc.contributor.authorLaza, Agustin Ruiz
dc.contributor.authorAllen, Norrina
dc.contributor.authorPanos, Stella
dc.contributor.authorMerrill, David
dc.contributor.authorIbáñez, Agustín
dc.contributor.authorTsuang, Debby
dc.contributor.authorValishvili, Nino
dc.contributor.authorShrestha, Srishti
dc.contributor.authorWang, Sophia
dc.contributor.authorPadma, Vasantha
dc.contributor.authorAnstey, Kaarin J.
dc.contributor.authorRavindrdanath, Vijayalakshmi
dc.contributor.authorBlennow, Kaj
dc.contributor.authorMullins, Paul
dc.contributor.authorŁojek, Emilia
dc.contributor.authorPria, Anand
dc.contributor.authorMosley, Thomas H.
dc.contributor.authorGowland, Penny
dc.contributor.authorGirard, Timothy D.
dc.contributor.authorBowtell, Richard
dc.contributor.authorVahidy, Farhaan S.
dc.contributor.departmentPsychiatry, School of Medicine
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused >3.5 million deaths worldwide and affected >160 million people. At least twice as many have been infected but remained asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. COVID-19 includes central nervous system manifestations mediated by inflammation and cerebrovascular, anoxic, and/or viral neurotoxicity mechanisms. More than one third of patients with COVID-19 develop neurologic problems during the acute phase of the illness, including loss of sense of smell or taste, seizures, and stroke. Damage or functional changes to the brain may result in chronic sequelae. The risk of incident cognitive and neuropsychiatric complications appears independent from the severity of the original pulmonary illness. It behooves the scientific and medical community to attempt to understand the molecular and/or systemic factors linking COVID-19 to neurologic illness, both short and long term. Methods: This article describes what is known so far in terms of links among COVID-19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias. We focus on risk factors and possible molecular, inflammatory, and viral mechanisms underlying neurological injury. We also provide a comprehensive description of the Alzheimer's Association Consortium on Chronic Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (CNS SC2) harmonized methodology to address these questions using a worldwide network of researchers and institutions. Results: Successful harmonization of designs and methods was achieved through a consensus process initially fragmented by specific interest groups (epidemiology, clinical assessments, cognitive evaluation, biomarkers, and neuroimaging). Conclusions from subcommittees were presented to the whole group and discussed extensively. Presently data collection is ongoing at 19 sites in 12 countries representing Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Discussion: The Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium harmonized methodology is proposed as a model to study long-term neurocognitive sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Key points: The following review describes what is known so far in terms of molecular and epidemiological links among COVID-19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and AD and related dementias (ADRD)The primary objective of this large-scale collaboration is to clarify the pathogenesis of ADRD and to advance our understanding of the impact of a neurotropic virus on the long-term risk of cognitive decline and other CNS sequelae. No available evidence supports the notion that cognitive impairment after SARS-CoV-2 infection is a form of dementia (ADRD or otherwise). The longitudinal methodologies espoused by the consortium are intended to provide data to answer this question as clearly as possible controlling for possible confounders. Our specific hypothesis is that SARS-CoV-2 triggers ADRD-like pathology following the extended olfactory cortical network (EOCN) in older individuals with specific genetic susceptibility. The proposed harmonization strategies and flexible study designs offer the possibility to include large samples of under-represented racial and ethnic groups, creating a rich set of harmonized cohorts for future studies of the pathophysiology, determinants, long-term consequences, and trends in cognitive aging, ADRD, and vascular disease. We provide a framework for current and future studies to be carried out within the Consortium. and offers a "green paper" to the research community with a very broad, global base of support, on tools suitable for low- and middle-income countries aimed to compare and combine future longitudinal data on the topic. The Consortium proposes a combination of design and statistical methods as a means of approaching causal inference of the COVID-19 neuropsychiatric sequelae. We expect that deep phenotyping of neuropsychiatric sequelae may provide a series of candidate syndromes with phenomenological and biological characterization that can be further explored. By generating high-quality harmonized data across sites we aim to capture both descriptive and, where possible, causal associations.
dc.eprint.versionFinal published version
dc.identifier.citationde Erausquin GA, Snyder H, Brugha TS, et al. Chronic neuropsychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2: Protocol and methods from the Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2022;8(1):e12348. Published 2022 Sep 22. doi:10.1002/trc2.12348
dc.publisherAlzheimer’s Association
dc.relation.journalAlzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationalen
dc.subjectCognitive impairment
dc.subjectNeuropsychiatric sequelae
dc.titleChronic neuropsychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2: Protocol and methods from the Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium
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