Community and Global Health Works

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 191
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    Association of hemoglobin levels in the first trimester and at 26 to 30 weeks with fetal and neonatal outcomes: A secondary analyses of the Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health’s ASPIRIN Trial
    (Wiley, 2021) Jessani, Saleem; Saleem, Sarah; Hoffman, Matthew K.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Derman, Richard J.; Moore, Janet L.; Garces, Ana; Figueroa, Lester; Krebs, Nancy F.; Okitawutshu, Jean; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl L.; Mwenechanya, Musaku; Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Das, Prabir Kumar; Patel, Archana; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Esamai, Fabian; Liechty, Edward A.; Bucher, Sherri; Nolen, Tracy L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Miodovnik, Menachem; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health
    Objective: Limited data are available from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) on the relationship of haemoglobin levels to adverse outcomes at different times during pregnancy. We evaluated the association of haemoglobin levels in nulliparous women at two times in pregnancy with pregnancy outcomes. Design: ASPIRIN Trial data were used to study the association between haemoglobin levels measured at 6+0 -13+6 weeks and 26+0 -30+0 weeks of gestation with fetal and neonatal outcomes. Setting: Obstetric care facilities in Pakistan, India, Kenya, Zambia, The Democratic Republic of the Congo and Guatemala. Population: A total of 11 976 pregnant women. Methods: Generalised linear models were used to obtain adjusted relative risks and 95% CI for adverse outcomes. Main outcome measures: Preterm birth, stillbirth, neonatal death, small for gestational age (SGA) and birthweight <2500 g. Results: The mean haemoglobin levels at 6+0 -13+6 weeks and at 26-30 weeks of gestation were 116 g/l (SD 17) and 107 g/l (SD 15), respectively. In general, pregnancy outcomes were better with increasing haemoglobin. At 6+0 -13+6 weeks of gestation, stillbirth, SGA and birthweight <2500 g, were significantly associated with haemoglobin of 70-89 g/l compared with haemoglobin of 110-129 g/l The relationships of adverse pregnancy outcomes with various haemoglobin levels were more marked at 26-30 weeks of gestation. Conclusions: Both lower and some higher haemoglobin concentrations are associated with adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes at 6+0 -13+6 weeks and at 26-30 weeks of gestation, although the relationship with low haemoglobin levels appears more consistent and generally stronger.
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    Online Modified-Delphi: a Potential Method for Continuous Patient Engagement Across Stages of Clinical Practice Guideline Development
    (Springer, 2021) Grant, Sean; Armstrong, Courtney; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health
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    A Modified Tumor-Node-Metastasis Classification for Primary Operable Colorectal Cancer
    (Oxford University Press, 2020-10-16) Zhang, Chundong; Mei, Zubing; Pei, Junpeng; Abe, Masanobu; Zeng, Xiantao; Huang, Qiao; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Akimoto, Naohiko; Haruki, Koichiro; Nan, Hongmei; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Zhang, Rui; Li, Xinxiang; Ogino, Shuji; Ugai, Tomotaka; Community and Global Health, School of Public Health
    Background: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification for colorectal cancer (CRC) has limited ability to predict prognosis. Methods: We included 45 379 eligible stage I-III CRC patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Patients were randomly assigned individually to a training (n = 31 772) or an internal validation cohort (n = 13 607). External validation was performed in 10 902 additional patients. Patients were divided according to T and N stage permutations. Survival analyses were conducted by a Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier analysis, with T1N0 as the reference. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve and Akaike information criteria were applied for prognostic discrimination and model fitting, respectively. Clinical benefits were further assessed by decision curve analyses. Results: We created a modified TNM (mTNM) classification: stages I (T1-2N0-1a); IIA (T1N1b, T2N1b, T3N0); IIB (T1-2N2a-2b, T3N1a-1b, T4aN0); IIC (T3N2a, T4aN1a-2a, T4bN0); IIIA (T3N2b, T4bN1a); IIIB (T4aN2b, T4bN1b); and IIIC (T4bN2a-2b). In the internal validation cohort, compared with the AJCC 8th TNM classification, the mTNM classification showed superior prognostic discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.675 vs 0.667, respectively; 2-sided P < .001) and better model fitting (Akaike information criteria = 70 937 vs 71 238, respectively). Similar findings were obtained in the external validation cohort. Decision curve analyses revealed that the mTNM had superior net benefits over the AJCC 8th TNM classification in the internal and external validation cohorts. Conclusions: The mTNM classification provides better prognostic discrimination than AJCC 8th TNM classification, with good applicability in various populations and settings, to help better stratify stage I-III CRC patients into prognostic groups.
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    Chronic Occupational Exposure to Traffic Pollution Is Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Urban Traffic Control Police
    (MDPI, 2023-09-01) Balogun, Abdulrazak O.; Weigel, M. Margaret; Estévez, Edmundo; Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Community and Global Health, School of Public Health
    Urban traffic officers in many low- and middle-income countries are exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) while working vehicle control on heavily congested streets. The impact of chronic TRAP exposure on the cardiovascular health, including the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), of this outdoor occupational group remains unclear. This cross-sectional study compared the average mean and maximum CIMT measurements of two groups of relatively young, healthy traffic police (32 ± 7 years; 77% male) in Quito, Ecuador, who were without clinical evidence of serious cardiovascular or other disease. Previously published background data on PM10 (a TRAP surrogate) indicated that street levels of the pollutant were several orders of magnitude higher at the street intersections worked by traffic police compared to those working only in an office. Accordingly, officers permanently assigned to daily traffic control duties requiring them to stand 0–3 m from heavily trafficked street intersections were assigned to the high exposure group (n = 61). The control group (n = 54) consisted of officers from the same organization who were permanently assigned to office duties inside an administration building. Mean and maximum CIMT were measured with ultrasound. General linear models were used to compare the CIMT measurements of the high exposure and control groups, adjusting for covariates. The adjusted average mean and maximum CIMT measures of the high exposure group were increased by 11.5% and 10.3%, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.0001). These findings suggest that chronic occupational exposure to TRAP is associated with increased CIMT in traffic police. This is important since even small increases in arterial thickening over time may promote earlier progression to clinical disease and increased premature mortality risk.
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    Association of severe malaria with cognitive and behavioural outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-analysis and systematic review
    (BMC, 2023-08-03) Ssemata, Andrew Sentoogo; Nakitende, Ann Jacquelline; Kizito, Simon; Thomas, Melissa R.; Islam, Sumaiya; Bangirana, Paul; Nakasujja, Noeline; Yang, Ziyi; Yu, Yunpeng; Tran, Tuan M.; John, Chandy C.; McHenry, Megan S.; Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health
    Background: Malaria affects 24 million children globally, resulting in nearly 500,000 child deaths annually in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Recent studies have provided evidence that severe malaria infection results in sustained impairment in cognition and behaviour among young children; however, a formal meta-analysis has not been published. The objective was to assess the association between severe malaria infection with cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children living in LMICs. Methods: Six online bibliographic databases were searched and reviewed in November 2022. Studies included involved children < 18 years of age living in LMICs with active or past severe malaria infection and measured cognitive and/or behaviour outcomes. The quality of studies was assessed. Definitions of severe malaria included cerebral malaria, severe malarial anaemia, and author-defined severe malaria. Results from all studies were qualitatively summarized. For studies with relevant data on attention, learning, memory, language, internalizing behaviour and externalizing behaviour, results were pooled and a meta-analysis was performed. A random-effects model was used across included cohorts, yielding a standardized mean difference between the severe malaria group and control group. Results: Out of 3,803 initial records meeting the search criteria, 24 studies were included in the review, with data from 14 studies eligible for meta-analysis inclusion. Studies across sub-Saharan Africa assessed 11 cohorts of children from pre-school to school age. Of all the studies, composite measures of cognition were the most affected areas of development. Overall, attention, memory, and behavioural problems were domains most commonly found to have lower scores in children with severe malaria. Meta-analysis revealed that children with severe malaria had worse scores compared to children without malaria in attention (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.68, 95% CI -1.26 to -0.10), memory (SMD -0.52, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.06), and externalizing behavioural problems (SMD 0.45, 95% CI 0.13-0.78). Conclusion: Severe malaria is associated with worse neuropsychological outcomes for children living in LMICs, specifically in attention, memory, and externalizing behaviours. More research is needed to identify the long-term implications of these findings. Further interventions are needed to prevent cognitive and behavioural problems after severe malaria infection.
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    Worlds Further Apart
    (Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, 2021-08) Weathers, Tess; Comer, Karen; Staten, Lisa
    In our updated analysis of 104 ZIP codes in the Indianapolis metro area (2014-2018), we identified the northern suburb of Fishers as our longest living community and just 17 miles away, within the Indianapolis city limits, is the shortest living community within the metro area. Though only 17 miles of distance separate them, their life expectancy is worlds apart.
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    Report on the Tobacco Epidemic in Indiana and Marion County and Effective Solutions: 2018 Update
    (Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, 2018-10) Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank; Halverson, Paul
    A number of effective solutions exist for lowering tobacco rates, improving health, and lowering costs in Indiana and Marion County. Policy makers, health care systems, employers, schools, and nonprofit and community-based organizations all play a critical role.
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    The Changing Landscape of the Opioid Epidemic in Marion County and Evidence for Action
    (Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, 2018-10-18) Watson, Dennis; Duwve, Joan; Greene, Marion; Weathers, Tess; Huynh, Philip; Nannery, Rebecca
    The impact of the opioid crisis is vast, with its effects impacting individuals, families, and communities as a whole. The epidemic has evolved – what began largely as a prescription opioid problem surged into the street, where heroin and “fake” pills resembling prescription drugs are now often laced with deadly amounts of illegally produced fentanyl. The evolving epidemic has compelled an evolving response, including new and more diverse strategies, and the engagement of multiple sectors of the community beyond health care, including employers, schools, nonprofit agencies, government agencies, law enforcement and policymakers. This report updates a 2016 report by the IU Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health to describe the current landscape of the evolving opioid epidemic in Marion County, Indiana, and across the state.
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    Design and Implementation of the Diabetes Impact Project: A Multisector Partnership to Reduce Diabetes Burden in Indianapolis Communities
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2023) Staten, Lisa K.; Weathers, Tess D.; Nicholas, Celeste; Grain, Tedd; Haut, Dawn P.; Duckett-Brown, Patrice; Halverson, Paul K.; Caine, Virginia; Community and Global Health, School of Public Health
    Context: Community-level health disparities have not arisen suddenly but are the result of long-term systemic inequities. This article describes the design and implementation of a community-engaged multisector partnership to address health disparities by reducing the diabetes burden in 3 Indianapolis communities through the implementation of evidence-based strategies across the prevention continuum. Program: The project has 5 foundational design principles: engage partners from multiple sectors to address community health, focus on geographic communities most affected by the health disparity, practice authentic community engagement, commit for the long term, and utilize a holistic approach spanning the prevention continuum. Implementation: The design principles are incorporated into the following project components in each community: (1) health system community health workers (hCHWs), (2) neighborhood CHWs (nCHWs), (3) community health promotion initiatives, and (4) resident steering committees, as well as a backbone organization responsible for overall coordination, project communication, evaluation, and partnership coordination. Evaluation: This complex multilevel intervention is being evaluated using data sources and methodologies suited to each project component and its purpose overall. Each component is being evaluated independently and included holistically to measure the impact of the project on the health and culture of health in the communities. Key Performance Indicators were established upon project initiation as our common metrics for the partnership. Because complex interventions aiming at population-level change take time, we evaluate Diabetes Impact Project-Indianapolis Neighborhoods (DIP-IN), assuming its impact will take many years to achieve. Discussion: Health disparities such as the diabetes prevalence in project communities have not arisen suddenly but are the result of long-term systemic inequities. This complex issue requires a complex holistic solution with long-term commitment, trusted partnerships, and investment from diverse sectors as seen in this project. Implications for policy and practice include the need to identify stable funding mechanisms to support these types of holistic approaches.
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    Expert Panel Consensus on State-Level Policies to Improve Engagement and Retention in Treatment for Opioid Use Disord
    (American Medical Association, 2022-09-02) Smart, Rosanna; Grant, Sean; Gordon, Adam J.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Stein, Bradley D.; Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health
    Importance: In the US, recent legislation and regulations have been considered, proposed, and implemented to improve the quality of treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). However, insufficient empirical evidence exists to identify which policies are feasible to implement and successfully improve patient and population-level outcomes. Objective: To examine expert consensus on the effectiveness and the ability to implement state-level OUD treatment policies. Evidence review: This qualitative study used the ExpertLens online platform to conduct a 3-round modified Delphi process to convene 66 stakeholders (health care clinicians, social service practitioners, addiction researchers, health policy decision-makers, policy advocates, and persons with lived experience). Stakeholders participated in 1 of 2 expert panels on 14 hypothetical state-level policies targeting treatment engagement and linkage, evidence-based and integrated care, treatment flexibility, and monitoring or support services. Participants rated policies in round 1, discussed results in round 2, and provided final ratings in round 3. Participants used 4 criteria associated with either the effectiveness or implementability to rate and discuss each policy. The effectiveness panel (n = 29) considered policy effects on treatment engagement, treatment retention, OUD remission, and opioid overdose mortality. The implementation panel (n = 34) considered the acceptability, feasibility, affordability, and equitability of each policy. We measured consensus using the interpercentile range adjusted for symmetry analysis technique from the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method. Findings: Both panels reached consensus on all items. Experts viewed 2 policies (facilitated access to medications for OUD and automatic Medicaid enrollment for citizens returning from correctional settings) as highly implementable and highly effective in improving patient and population-level outcomes. Participants rated hub-and-spoke-type policies and provision of financial incentives to emergency departments for treatment linkage as effective; however, they also rated these policies as facing implementation barriers associated with feasibility and affordability. Coercive policies and policies levying additional requirements on individuals with OUD receiving treatment (eg, drug toxicology testing, counseling requirements) were viewed as low-value policies (ie, decreasing treatment engagement and retention, increasing overdose mortality, and increasing health inequities). Conclusions and relevance: The findings of this study may provide urgently needed consensus on policies for states to consider either adopting or deimplementing in their efforts to address the opioid overdose crisis.