Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology Works

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 78
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    Are Adults Over 18 Years of Age with Anaemia More Likely to Develop Chronic Periodontitis Than Adults Without Anaemia? - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2023-08-30) Roberts, Madison; Jimson, Sudha; Srinivasan, Mythily; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    Aims and objectives: Periodontitis is a chronic disease affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth and exhibits bidirectional relation with systemic diseases. This study aims to determine the association between chronic periodontitis and erythrocyte functional measures: total red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) by systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and methods: A systematic search of the electronic databases PUBMED, OVID, Embase, Web on Science, and Google Scholar was undertaken from inception to July 2022. English language studies that evaluated the erythrocyte functional measures in periodontitis and health were selected. Other review reports, letters/opinion articles, studies without a definition of periodontitis, and the concomitant presence of systemic conditions (diabetes, kidney disease, cancer) were excluded. Two reviewers determined full-text eligibility in a blinded process. Meta-Essentials software was used to generate forest plots and to determine heterogeneity and publication bias. Results: Twenty-six studies involving 1082 patients with chronic periodontitis and 980 healthy controls were analyzed. Pooled results showed lower Hb concentration (Hedges' g = -1.16; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -1.7 to -0.62), RBC counts (Hedges' g = -0.85; 95% CI, -1.31 to -0.38) and packed cell volume (-0.56; 95% CI, -1.02 to -0.11) in patients with chronic periodontitis. Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed a decreasing trend in the hematological parameters, including hemoglobin concentration, number of erythrocytes, and hematocrit in patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls.
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    Entrustable professional activities framework for assessment in predoctoral dental education, developed using a modified Delphi process
    (Wiley, 2021) Ramaswamy, Vidya; Fitzgerald, Mark; Danciu, Theodora; Nalliah, Romesh; de Peralta, Tracy; Munz, Stephanie M.; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    Purpose/objectives: The purpose of this study was to define and develop a set of Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) for dental education using a modified Delphi consensus approach. EPAs define the core tasks that a graduating dentist needs to perform independently in practice. The EPA framework facilitates assessment of competencies as they manifest in the tasks and independence needed to be ready for practice. Methods: Feedback was obtained from participants about a list of EPAs, with modifications made after each of the 3 rounds, using a modified Delphi approach. Phase 1 included attendees at the ADEA Fall 2017 meeting (n = 35) who participated in an EPA workshop primarily composed of academic deans. The Phase 2 "reactor panel" consisted of 10 dental schools' academic deans and other individuals with expertise and interest in dental curriculum and assessment (n = 31). Phase 3 participants were attendees at the ADEA CCI 2019 meeting (n = 91) who also participated in a 2-day EPA workshop. Results: In phase 1, overall ratings for acceptability of the EPAs were satisfactory. In phase 2, the next iteration of EPAs was judged as satisfactory for inclusion in curriculum, match well with clinical practice and clarity. In phase 3, the EPAs were judged as satisfactory for being an "entrustable, essential, and important task of the profession." Qualitative feedback suggested wording, measurability, and specific focus of EPA statements is important. Conclusions: A preliminary set of EPAs was designed for predoctoral dental education through a systematic, careful consensus building approach involving a diverse set of participants.
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    Comparison of Oropharyngeal Oxygen Pooling and Suctioning During Intubated and Nonintubated Dental Office-Based Anesthesia
    (Allen Press, 2023) Rafla, Rebecca R.; Saxen, Mark A.; Yepes, Juan F.; Jones, James E.; Vinson, LaQuia A.; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    Objective: The risk of a spontaneous surgical fire increases as oxygen concentrations surrounding the surgical site rise above the normal atmospheric level of 21%. Previously published in vitro findings imply this phenomenon (termed oxygen pooling) occurs during dental procedures under sedation and general anesthesia; however, it has not been clinically documented. Methods: Thirty-one children classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II between 2 and 6 years of age undergoing office-based general anesthesia for complete dental rehabilitation were monitored for intraoral ambient oxygen concentration, end-tidal CO2, and respiratory rate changes immediately following nasotracheal intubation or insertion of nasopharyngeal airways, followed by high-speed suctioning of the oral cavity during simulated dental treatment. Results: Mean ambient intraoral oxygen concentrations ranging from 46.9% to 72.1%, levels consistent with oxygen pooling, occurred in the nasopharyngeal airway group prior to the introduction of high-speed oral suctioning. However, 1 minute of suctioning reversed the oxygen pooling to 31.2%. Oropharyngeal ambient oxygen concentrations in patients with uncuffed endotracheal tubes ranged from 24.1% to 26.6% prior to high-speed suctioning, which reversed the pooling to 21.1% after 1 minute. Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant oxygen pooling with nasopharyngeal airway use before and after high-speed suctioning. Uncuffed endotracheal intubation showed minimal pooling, which was reversed to room air ambient oxygen concentrations after 1 minute of suctioning.
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    Perceptions on Oral Ulcers From Facebook Page Categories: Observational Study
    (JMIR, 2023-01) Simhadri, Suguna; Yalamanchi, Sriha; Stone, Sean; Srinivasan, Mythily; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    Background: Oral ulcers are a common condition affecting a considerable proportion of the population, and they are often associated with trauma and stress. They are very painful, and interfere with eating. As they are usually considered an annoyance, people may turn to social media for potential management options. Facebook is one of the most commonly accessed social media platforms and is the primary source of news information, including health information, for a significant percentage of American adults. Given the increasing importance of social media as a source of health information, potential remedies, and prevention strategies, it is essential to understand the type and quality of information available on Facebook regarding oral ulcers. Objective: The goal of our study was to evaluate information on recurrent oral ulcers that can be accessed via the most popular social media network—Facebook. Methods: We performed a keyword search of Facebook pages on 2 consecutive days in March 2022, using duplicate, newly created accounts, and then anonymized all posts. The collected pages were filtered, using predefined criteria to include only English-language pages wherein oral ulcer information was posted by the general public and to exclude pages created by professional dentists, associated professionals, organizations, and academic researchers. The selected pages were then screened for page origin and Facebook categories. Results: Our initial keyword search yielded 517 pages; interestingly however, only 112 (22%) of pages had information relevant to oral ulcers, and 405 (78%) had irrelevant information, with ulcers being mentioned in relation to other parts of the human body. Excluding professional pages and pages without relevant posts resulted in 30 pages, of which 9 (30%) were categorized as “health/beauty” pages or as “product/service” pages, 3 (10%) were categorized as “medical & health” pages, and 5 (17%) were categorized as “community” pages. Majority of the pages (22/30, 73%) originated from 6 countries; most originated from the United States (7 pages), followed by India (6 pages). There was little information on oral ulcer prevention, long-term treatment, and complications. Conclusions: Facebook, in oral ulcer information dissemination, appears to be primarily used as an adjunct to business enterprises for marketing or for enhancing access to a product. Consequently, it was unsurprising that there was little information on oral ulcer prevention, long-term treatment, and complications. Although we made efforts to identify and select Facebook pages related to oral ulcers, we did not manually verify the authenticity or accuracy of the pages included in our analysis, potentially limiting the reliability of our findings or resulting in bias toward specific products or services. Although this work forms something of a pilot project, we plan to expand the project to encompass text mining for content analysis and include multiple social media platforms in the future.
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    Characteristics of Chemosensory Perception in Long COVID and COVID Reinfection
    (MDPI, 2023-05-22) Jaramillo, Mikki; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P.; Eckert, George; Srinivasan, Mythily; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    Emerging data suggest an increasing prevalence of persistent symptoms in individuals affected by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The objective of this study was to determine the relative frequency of altered taste and smell in COVID reinfection (multiple COVID positive tests) and long COVID (one COVID positive test). We sent an electronic survey to patients in the Indiana University Health COVID registry with positive COVID test results, querying if they were experiencing symptoms consistent with long COVID including altered chemosensory perceptions. Among the 225 respondents, a greater long COVID burden and COVID reinfection was observed in women. Joint pain was reported as the most common symptom experienced by 18% of individuals in the long COVID cohort. In the COVID reinfection cohort >20% of individuals reported headache, joint pain, and cough. Taste perception worse than pre-COVID was reported by 29% and 42% of individuals in the long COVID and COVID reinfection cohorts, respectively. Smell perception worse than pre-COVID was reported by 37% and 46% of individuals in long COVID and COVID reinfection cohorts, respectively. Further, Chi-square test suggested significant association between pre-COVID severity of taste/smell perception and headache in both cohorts. Our findings highlight the prevalence of persistent chemosensory dysfunction for two years and longer in long COVID and COVID reinfection.
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    Evaluation of the follicular space volume of lower third molars with different impaction positions and angulations: A cone-beam computed tomography and histopathological study
    (Elsevier, 2023-03-30) Barroso, Marlene; Arriola-Guillén, Luis E.; Dutra, Vinicius; Rodríguez, Julio Escoto; Suárez, Gerardo Ruales; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    Objective: To quantify the volume of the follicular spaces of impacted lower third molars (ILTMs) with different impaction positions and angulations using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to determine its association with the histopathological findings. Study design: This study included 103 ILTMs of 33 men and 70 women aged 18-46 years (mean age, 29.18 years). The follicular space volumes were measured on CBCT by manual segmentation and correlated with the histopathological diagnosis of each ILTM having different impaction positions and angulations. Statistical Product and Service Solutions, version 24, was used for statistical analyses by applying the t-test and binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression tests (p < 0.05). Results: Overall, 83 (80.6%) dental follicles presented a non-pathological diagnosis (mean follicular volume, 0.10 cm3), whereas 20 (19.4%) presented a pathological diagnosis (mean follicular volume, 0.32 cm3; p = 0.001). Similarly, the impaction depth in Position C cases was associated with a pathological diagnosis (p = 0.010). Conclusion: The follicular volume of the ILTMs varied significantly in teeth with a histopathological diagnosis of a follicular cyst and was associated with the impaction depth, mainly in Position C cases, and its relationship with the mandibular ramus. A mean follicular volume of 0.32 cm3 was associated with a greater probability of a pathological diagnosis.
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    A nuclear factor-kappa B inhibiting peptide suppresses innate immune receptors and gliosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease
    (Elsevier, 2021-06) Lindsay, Alison; Hickman, Deborah; Srinivasan, Mythily; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    A disproportionate increase in activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has been shown to drive the Aβ deposition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Hence, selective targeting of activated p65 represents an attractive therapeutic approach for AD. Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a NF-κB interactant that binds and sequesters the activated p65 in the cytoplasm. The p65 binding domain of GILZ adopts a polyproline type II helical conformation, a motif that acts as an adaptable glove in the interface with the binding partner and constitutes an excellent template for drug design. Previously, peptide analogs of the p65 binding domain of GILZ, referred to as GA have been shown to suppress pathology in the lipopolysaccharide induced model of neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the CNS delivery of labeled GA administered intraperitoneally in adult mice for a period of upto 24 h. Further, we evaluated the suppressive potential of GA in 5xFAD mice, an aggressive model with five genetic mutations closely associated with human AD. Groups of 5xFAD mice administered GA or control peptide intraperitoneally on alternate days for six weeks were evaluated for Aβ deposition, microglia, inflammation and innate immune responses by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase reaction. GA was observed in proximity with NeuN positive neurons suggesting that the compound crossed the blood brain barrier to reach the brain parenchyma. Further, GA treatment decreased Aβ load, reduced Iba1 + microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ astrocytes, inhibited inflammatory cytokines and suppressed toll like receptor (TLR-2, TLR-4) expressions in 5xFAD mice.
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    Psychometric Characteristics of Oral Pathology Test Items in the Dental Hygiene Curriculum—A Longitudinal Analysis
    (MDPI, 2021-05-13) Srinivasan, Mythily; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    As the landscape of oral healthcare and the delivery of services continue to undergo change, the dental hygienist plays an increasing role in assisting dentists with oral diagnosis and preventive strategies. Hence, the dental hygiene curriculum standards require biomedical science instructions, including general and oral pathology. Student learning and cognitive competencies are often measured using multiple-choice questions (MCQs). The objectives of this study were to perform a longitudinal analysis of test items and to evaluate their relation to the absolute grades of the oral pathology course in the dental hygiene curriculum. A total of 1033 MCQs covering different concepts of oral pathology administered from 2015 through 2019 were analyzed for difficulty and discriminatory indices, and the differences between the years were determined by one-way ANOVA. Test reliability as determined by the average KR-20 value was 0.7 or higher for each exam. The mean difficulty index for all exams was 0.73 +/− 0.05, and that of the discriminatory index was 0.33 +/− 0.05. Wide variations were observed in the discriminatory indices of test items with approximately the same difficulty index, as well as in the grade distribution in each cohort. Furthermore, longitudinal data analyses identified low achieving cohorts amongst the groups evaluated for the same knowledge domain, taught with the same instruction, and using similar test tools. This suggest that comparative analyses of tests could offer feedback not only on student learning attributes, but also potentially on the admission processes to the dental hygiene program.
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    Taste Dysfunction and Long COVID-19
    (Frontiers, 2021-07-14) Srinivasan, Mythily; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has imposed unprecedented morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of June 2021, globally over 163 million individuals are infected and nearly 3.4 million individuals have died. Emerging concerns include complaints of persistent symptoms for extended periods in recovered individuals. Cellular damage due to disease and/or treatment, prolonged viral shedding, chronic immune inflammatory response, and pro-coagulant state induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection are suggested mechanisms contributing to the symptom sequelae.
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    Will the DDS class of 2021 be practice ready?
    (Elsevier, 2021-05) Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne; Johnsen, David C.; Wolff, Mark S.; Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, School of Dentistry