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    Prior Sexual Trauma Exposure Impacts Posttraumatic Dysfunction and Neural Circuitry Following a Recent Traumatic Event in the AURORA Study
    (Elsevier, 2023-02-16) Rowland, Grace E.; Roeckner, Alyssa; Ely, Timothy D.; Lebois, Lauren A. M.; van Rooij, Sanne J. H.; Bruce, Steven E.; Jovanovic, Tanja; House, Stacey L.; Beaudoin, Francesca L.; An, Xinming; Neylan, Thomas C.; Clifford, Gari D.; Linnstaedt, Sarah D.; Germine, Laura T.; Rauch, Scott L.; Haran, John P.; Storrow, Alan B.; Lewandowski, Christopher; Musey, Paul I., Jr.; Hendry, Phyllis L.; Sheikh, Sophia; Jones, Christopher W.; Punches, Brittany E.; Kurz, Michael C.; Gentile, Nina T.; Hudak, Lauren A.; Pascual, Jose L.; Seamon, Mark J.; Harris, Erica; Pearson, Claire; Merchant, Roland C.; Domeier, Robert M.; Rathlev, Niels K.; Sergot, Paulina; Sanchez, Leon D.; Miller, Mark W.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Joormann, Jutta; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Sheridan, John F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Harte, Steven E.; Elliott, James M.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; McLean, Samuel A.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Stevens, Jennifer S.; Harnett, Nathaniel G.; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Background: Prior sexual trauma (ST) is associated with greater risk for posttraumatic stress disorder after a subsequent traumatic event; however, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain opaque. We investigated longitudinal posttraumatic dysfunction and amygdala functional dynamics following admission to an emergency department for new primarily nonsexual trauma in participants with and without previous ST. Methods: Participants (N = 2178) were recruited following acute trauma exposure (primarily motor vehicle collision). A subset (n = 242) completed magnetic resonance imaging that included a fearful faces task and a resting-state scan 2 weeks after the trauma. We investigated associations between prior ST and several dimensions of posttraumatic symptoms over 6 months. We further assessed amygdala activation and connectivity differences between groups with or without prior ST. Results: Prior ST was associated with greater posttraumatic depression (F1,1120 = 28.35, p = 1.22 × 10-7, ηp2 = 0.06), anxiety (F1,1113 = 17.43, p = 3.21 × 10-5, ηp2 = 0.05), and posttraumatic stress disorder (F1,1027 = 11.34, p = 7.85 × 10-4, ηp2 = 0.04) severity and more maladaptive beliefs about pain (F1,1113 = 8.51, p = .004, ηp2 = 0.02) but was not related to amygdala reactivity to fearful versus neutral faces (all ps > .05). A secondary analysis revealed an interaction between ST and lifetime trauma load on the left amygdala to visual cortex connectivity (peak Z value: -4.41, corrected p < .02). Conclusions: Findings suggest that prior ST is associated with heightened posttraumatic dysfunction following a new trauma exposure but not increased amygdala activity. In addition, ST may interact with lifetime trauma load to alter neural circuitry in visual processing regions following acute trauma exposure. Further research should probe the relationship between trauma type and visual circuitry in the acute aftermath of trauma.
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    Improving Smoking and Blood Pressure Outcomes: The Interplay Between Operational Changes and Local Context
    (Annals of Family Medicine, 2021) Cohen, Deborah J.; Sweeney, Shannon M.; Miller, William L.; Hall, Jennifer D.; Miech, Edward J.; Springer, Rachel J.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Damschroder, Laura; Marino, Miguel; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Purpose: We undertook a study to identify conditions and operational changes linked to improvements in smoking and blood pressure (BP) outcomes in primary care. Methods: We purposively sampled and interviewed practice staff (eg, office managers, clinicians) from a subset of 104 practices participating in EvidenceNOW-a multisite cardiovascular disease prevention initiative. We calculated Clinical Quality Measure improvements, with targets of 10-point or greater absolute improvements in the proportion of patients with smoking screening and, if relevant, counseling and in the proportion of hypertensive patients with adequately controlled BP. We analyzed interview data to identify operational changes, transforming these into numeric data. We used Configurational Comparative Methods to assess the joint effects of multiple factors on outcomes. Results: In clinician-owned practices, implementing a workflow to routinely screen, counsel, and connect patients to smoking cessation resources, or implementing a documentation change or a referral to a resource alone led to an improvement of at least 10 points in the smoking outcome with a moderate level of facilitation support. These patterns did not manifest in health- or hospital system-owned practices or in Federally Qualified Health Centers, however. The BP outcome improved by at least 10 points among solo practices after medical assistants were trained to take an accurate BP. Among larger, clinician-owned practices, BP outcomes improved when practices implemented a second BP measurement when the first was elevated, and when staff learned where to document this information in the electronic health record. With 50 hours or more of facilitation, BP outcomes improved among larger and health- and hospital system-owned practices that implemented these operational changes. Conclusions: There was no magic bullet for improving smoking or BP outcomes. Multiple combinations of operational changes led to improvements, but only in specific contexts of practice size and ownership, or dose of external facilitation.
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    Lung ultrasound for the early diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia: an international multicenter study
    (Springer Nature, 2021) Volpicelli, Giovanni; Gargani, Luna; Perlini, Stefano; Spinelli, Stefano; Barbieri, Greta; Lanotte, Antonella; Casasola, Gonzalo García; Nogué-Bou, Ramon; Lamorte, Alessandro; Agricola, Eustachio; Villén, Tomas; Deol, Paramjeet Singh; Nazerian, Peiman; Corradi, Francesco; Stefanone, Valerio; Fraga, Denise Nicole; Navalesi, Paolo; Ferre, Robinson; Boero, Enrico; Martinelli, Giampaolo; Cristoni, Lorenzo; Perani, Cristiano; Vetrugno, Luigi; McDermott, Cian; Miralles-Aguiar, Francisco; Secco, Gianmarco; Zattera, Caterina; Salinaro, Francesco; Grignaschi, Alice; Boccatonda, Andrea; Giostra, Fabrizio; Infante, Marta Nogué; Covella, Michele; Ingallina, Giacomo; Burkert, Julia; Frumento, Paolo; Forfori, Francesco; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; International Multicenter Study Group on LUS in COVID-19; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Purpose: To analyze the application of a lung ultrasound (LUS)-based diagnostic approach to patients suspected of COVID-19, combining the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia with patient's symptoms and clinical history. Methods: This is an international multicenter observational study in 20 US and European hospitals. Patients suspected of COVID-19 were tested with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) swab test and had an LUS examination. We identified three clinical phenotypes based on pre-existing chronic diseases (mixed phenotype), and on the presence (severe phenotype) or absence (mild phenotype) of signs and/or symptoms of respiratory failure at presentation. We defined the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia according to four different patterns: high (HighLUS), intermediate (IntLUS), alternative (AltLUS), and low (LowLUS) probability. The combination of patterns and phenotypes with RT-PCR results was described and analyzed. Results: We studied 1462 patients, classified in mild (n = 400), severe (n = 727), and mixed (n = 335) phenotypes. HighLUS and IntLUS showed an overall sensitivity of 90.2% (95% CI 88.23-91.97%) in identifying patients with positive RT-PCR, with higher values in the mixed (94.7%) and severe phenotype (97.1%), and even higher in those patients with objective respiratory failure (99.3%). The HighLUS showed a specificity of 88.8% (CI 85.55-91.65%) that was higher in the mild phenotype (94.4%; CI 90.0-97.0%). At multivariate analysis, the HighLUS was a strong independent predictor of RT-PCR positivity (odds ratio 4.2, confidence interval 2.6-6.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Combining LUS patterns of probability with clinical phenotypes at presentation can rapidly identify those patients with or without COVID-19 pneumonia at bedside. This approach could support and expedite patients' management during a pandemic surge.
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    The moderating role of the built environment in prenatal lifestyle interventions
    (Springer Nature, 2021) Phelan, Suzanne; Marquez, Fred; Redman, Leanne M.; Arteaga, Sonia; Clifton, Rebecca; Grice, Brian A.; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Martin, Corby K.; Myers, Candice A.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Vincent, Eileen; Van Horn, Linda; Peaceman, Alan; Ashby-Thompson, Maxine; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Boekhoudt, Trisha; Drews, Kimberly; Brown, Greg; LIFE-Moms consortium; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    This study examined whether the neighborhood built environment moderated gestational weight gain (GWG) in LIFE-Moms clinical trials. Participants were 790 pregnant women (13.9 weeks’ gestation) with overweight or obesity randomized within four clinical centers to standard care or lifestyle intervention to reduce GWG. Geographic information system (GIS) was used to map the neighborhood built environment. The intervention relative to standard care significantly reduced GWG (coefficient = 0.05; p = 0.005) and this effect remained significant (p < 0.03) after adjusting for built environment variables. An interaction was observed for presence of fast food restaurants (coefficient=−0.007; p = 0.003). Post hoc tests based on a median split showed that the intervention relative to standard care reduced GWG in participants living in neighborhoods with lower fast food density 0.08 [95% CI, 0.03,0.12] kg/week (p = 0.001) but not in those living in areas with higher fast food density (0.02 [−0.04, 0.08] kg/week; p = 0.55). Interaction effects suggested less intervention efficacy among women living in neighborhoods with more grocery/convenience stores (coefficient = −0.005; p = 0.0001), more walkability (coefficient −0.012; p = 0.007) and less crime (coefficient = 0.001; p = 0.007), but post-hoc tests were not significant. No intervention x environment interaction effects were observed for total number of eating establishments or tree canopy. Lifestyle interventions during pregnancy were effective across diverse physical environments. Living in environments with easy access to fast food restaurants may limit efficacy of prenatal lifestyle interventions, but future research is needed to replicate these findings.
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    Effects of a Novel Nitroxyl Donor in Acute Heart Failure: The STAND-UP AHF Study
    (Elsevier, 2021) Felker, G. Michael; McMurray, John J. V.; Cleland, John G.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Teerlink, John R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Belohlavek, Jan; Böhm, Michael; Borentain, Maria; Bueno, Hector; Cole, Robert T.; DeSouza, Mary M.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lang, Ninian N.; Kessler, Paul D.; Martinez, Felipe A.; Mebazaa, Alex; Metra, Marco; Mosterd, Arend; Pang, Peter S.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Sato, Naoki; Seiffert, Dietmar; Ye, June; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Objectives: The primary objective was to identify well-tolerated doses of cimlanod in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Secondary objectives were to identify signals of efficacy, including biomarkers, symptoms, and clinical events. Background: Nitroxyl (HNO) donors have vasodilator, inotropic and lusitropic effects. Bristol-Myers Squibb-986231 (cimlanod) is an HNO donor being developed for acute heart failure (AHF). Methods: This was a phase IIb, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 48-h treatment with cimlanod compared with placebo in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% hospitalized for AHF. In part I, patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to escalating doses of cimlanod or matching placebo. In part II, patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to either of the 2 highest tolerated doses of cimlanod from part I or placebo. The primary endpoint was the rate of clinically relevant hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg or patients became symptomatic). Results: In part I (n = 100), clinically relevant hypotension was more common with cimlanod than placebo (20% vs. 8%; relative risk [RR]: 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83 to 14.53). In part II (n = 222), the incidence of clinically relevant hypotension was 18% for placebo, 21% for cimlanod 6 μg/kg/min (RR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.58 to 2.43), and 35% for cimlanod 12 μg/kg/min (RR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.59). N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and bilirubin decreased during infusion of cimlanod treatment compared with placebo, but these differences did not persist after treatment discontinuation. Conclusions: Cimlanod at a dose of 6 μg/kg/min was reasonably well-tolerated compared with placebo. Cimlanod reduced markers of congestion, but this did not persist beyond the treatment period.
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    Serial “death diamond” TEGs are a bedside indicator of futile resuscitation during massive transfusion
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2023) Moore, Ernest E.; Moore, Hunter B.; Thomas, Scott G.; Farrell, Michael S.; Sixta, Sherry; Coleman, Julia R.; Miller, Joseph B.; Bunch, Connor M.; Waxman, Dan; Walsh, Mark M.; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Serial DDs could serve as rapid check points to gauge the likelihood of success of continued resuscitation. Loudon et al.’s work combined with the use of serial DDs may serve as building blocks toward a trial using VETs to predict continued futile resuscitation.
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    Measles: Contemporary considerations for the emergency physician
    (Wiley, 2023-09-09) Blutinger, Erik; Schmitz, Gillian; Kang, Christopher; Comp, Geoffrey; Wagner, Emily; Finnell, John T.; Cozzi, Nicolas; Haddock, Alison; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Measles, or rubeola, is a highly contagious acute febrile viral illness. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine since 1963, measles outbreaks continue worldwide. This article seeks to provide emergency physicians with the contemporary knowledge required to rapidly diagnose potential measles cases and bolster public health measures to reduce ongoing transmission.
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    Neighborhood Disadvantage and Neural Correlates of Threat and Reward Processing in Survivors of Recent Trauma
    (American Medical Association, 2023-09-05) Webb, E. Kate; Ely, Timothy D.; Rowland, Grace E.; Lebois, Lauren A. M.; van Rooij, Sanne J. H.; Bruce, Steven E.; Jovanovic, Tanja; House, Stacey L.; Beaudoin, Francesca L.; An, Xinming; Neylan, Thomas C.; Clifford, Gari D.; Linnstaedt, Sarah D.; Germine, Laura T.; Bollen, Kenneth A.; Rauch, Scott L.; Haran, John P.; Storrow, Alan B.; Lewandowski, Christopher; Musey, Paul I., Jr.; Hendry, Phyllis L.; Sheikh, Sophia; Jones, Christopher W.; Punches, Brittany E.; Swor, Robert A.; Pascual, Jose L.; Seamon, Mark J.; Datner, Elizabeth M.; Pearson, Claire; Peak, David A.; Merchant, Roland C.; Domeier, Robert M.; Rathlev, Niels K.; Sergot, Paulina; Sanchez, Leon D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; McLean, Samuel A.; Stevens, Jennifer S.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Harnett, Nathaniel G.; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Importance: Differences in neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics are important considerations in understanding differences in risk vs resilience in mental health. Neighborhood disadvantage is associated with alterations in the function and structure of threat neurocircuitry. Objective: To investigate associations of neighborhood disadvantage with white and gray matter and neural reactivity to positive and negative stimuli in the context of trauma exposure. Design, setting, and participants: In this cross-sectional study, survivors of trauma who completed sociodemographic and posttraumatic symptom assessments and neuroimaging were recruited as part of the Advancing Understanding of Recovery After Trauma (AURORA) study between September 2017 and June 2021. Data analysis was performed from October 25, 2022, to February 15, 2023. Exposure: Neighborhood disadvantage was measured with the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) for each participant home address. Main outcomes and measures: Participants completed separate threat and reward tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion-weighted and high-resolution structural images were also collected. Linear models assessed the association of ADI with reactivity, microstructure, and macrostructure of a priori regions of interest after adjusting for income, lifetime trauma, sex at birth, and age. A moderated-mediation model tested whether ADI was associated with neural activity via microstructural changes and if this was modulated by PTSD symptoms. Results: A total of 280 participants (183 females [65.4%]; mean [SD] age, 35.39 [13.29] years) completed the threat task and 244 participants (156 females [63.9%]; mean [SD] age, 35.10 [13.26] years) completed the reward task. Higher ADI (per 1-unit increase) was associated with greater insula (t274 = 3.20; β = 0.20; corrected P = .008) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; t274 = 2.56; β = 0.16; corrected P = .04) threat-related activity after considering covariates, but ADI was not associated with reward reactivity. Greater disadvantage was also associated with altered microstructure of the cingulum bundle (t274 = 3.48; β = 0.21; corrected P = .001) and gray matter morphology of the ACC (cortical thickness: t273 = -2.29; β = -0.13; corrected P = .02; surface area: t273 = 2.53; β = 0.13; corrected P = .02). The moderated-mediation model revealed that ADI was associated with ACC threat reactivity via cingulum microstructural changes (index of moderated mediation = -0.02). However, this mediation was only present in individuals with greater PTSD symptom severity (at the mean: β = -0.17; standard error = 0.06, t= -2.28; P = .007; at 1 SD above the mean: β = -0.28; standard error = 0.08; t = -3.35; P < .001). Conclusions and relevance: In this study, neighborhood disadvantage was associated with neurobiology that supports threat processing, revealing associations of neighborhood disadvantage with neural susceptibility for PTSD and suggesting how altered structure-function associations may complicate symptoms. Future work should investigate specific components of neighborhood disadvantage that may be associated with these outcomes.
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    Persistent Dissociation and Its Neural Correlates in Predicting Outcomes After Trauma Exposure
    (American Psychiatric Association, 2022) Lebois, Lauren A. M.; Harnett, Nathaniel G.; van Rooij, Sanne J. H.; Ely, Timothy D.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bruce, Steven E.; House, Stacey L.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Dumornay, Nathalie M.; Finegold, Katherine E.; Hill, Sarah B.; Merker, Julia B.; Phillips, Karlye A.; Beaudoin, Francesca L.; An, Xinming; Neylan, Thomas C.; Clifford, Gari D.; Linnstaedt, Sarah D.; Germine, Laura T.; Rauch, Scott L.; Haran, John P.; Storrow, Alan B.; Lewandowski, Christopher; Musey, Paul I., Jr.; Hendry, Phyllis L.; Sheikh, Sophia; Jones, Christopher W.; Punches, Brittany E.; Swor, Robert A.; McGrath, Meghan E.; Hudak, Lauren A.; Pascual, Jose L.; Seamon, Mark J.; Datner, Elizabeth M.; Chang, Anna M.; Pearson, Claire; Domeier, Robert M.; Rathlev, Niels K.; O'Neil, Brian J.; Sergot, Paulina; Sanchez, Leon D.; Miller, Mark W.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Joormann, Jutta; Barch, Deanna M.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Sheridan, John F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Luna, Beatriz; Harte, Steven E.; Elliott, James M.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; McLean, Samuel A.; Stevens, Jennifer S.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Objective: Dissociation, a disruption or discontinuity in psychological functioning, is often linked with worse psychiatric symptoms; however, the prognostic value of dissociation after trauma is inconsistent. Determining whether trauma-related dissociation is uniquely predictive of later outcomes would enable early identification of at-risk trauma populations. The authors conducted the largest prospective longitudinal biomarker study of persistent dissociation to date to determine its predictive capacity for adverse psychiatric outcomes following acute trauma. Methods: All data were part of the Freeze 2 data release from the Advancing Understanding of Recovery After Trauma (AURORA) study. Study participants provided self-report data about persistent derealization (N=1,464), a severe type of dissociation, and completed a functional MRI emotion reactivity task and resting-state scan 2 weeks posttrauma (N=145). Three-month follow-up reports were collected of posttraumatic stress, depression, pain, anxiety symptoms, and functional impairment. Results: Derealization was associated with increased ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation in the emotion reactivity task and decreased resting-state vmPFC connectivity with the cerebellum and orbitofrontal cortex. In separate analyses, brain-based and self-report measures of persistent derealization at 2 weeks predicted worse 3-month posttraumatic stress symptoms, distinct from the effects of childhood maltreatment history and current posttraumatic stress symptoms. Conclusions: The findings suggest that persistent derealization is both an early psychological and biological marker of worse later psychiatric outcomes. The neural correlates of trauma-related dissociation may serve as potential targets for treatment engagement to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder. These results underscore dissociation assessment as crucial following trauma exposure to identify at-risk individuals, and they highlight an unmet clinical need for tailored early interventions.
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    Impact of interhospital transfer on patients with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementias
    (Wiley, 2023-09-07) Glober, Nancy; LaShell, Alexandra; Montelauro, Nicholas; Troyer, Lindsay; Supples, Michael; Unroe, Kathleen; Tainter, Christopher; Faris, Greg; Fuchita, Mikita; Boustani, Malaz; Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine
    Older adults are often transferred from one emergency department (ED) to another hospital for speciality care, but little is known about whether those transfers positively impact patients, particularly those with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementias (ADRD). In this study we aimed to describe the impact of interhospital transfer on older adults with and without ADRD. In a retrospective review of electronic medical records, we collected data on demographics, insurance type, initial code status, intensive care, length of stay, specialist consult, procedure within 48 hours, and discharge disposition for older adults (≥65years). We included older adults with at least one ED visit, who were transferred to a tertiary care hospital. With logistic regression, we estimated odds of death, intensive care stay, or procedure within 48 hours by ADRD diagnosis. Patients with ADRD more often received a geriatrics (p < 0.001) or palliative care consult (p = 0.038). They were less likely to be full code at admission (p < 0.001) or to be discharged home (p < 0.001). Patients living with ADRD less often received intensive care or a procedure within 48 hours of transfer (odds ratio [OR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22–2.88). Patients with ADRD were less likely to receive intensive care unit admission or specialist procedures after transfer. Further study is indicated to comprehensively understand patient‐centered outcomes.