- Browse by Author

### Browsing by Author "Chen, Rou"

Now showing 1 - 10 of 10

###### Results Per Page

###### Sort Options

Item A new noninvasive and patient-specific hemodynamic index for the severity of renal stenosis and outcome of interventional treatment(Wiley, 2022-07) Yu, Huidan; Khan, Monsurul; Wu, Hao; Du, Xiaoping; Chen, Rou; Rollins, Dave M.; Fang, Xin; Long, Jianyun; Xu, Chenke; Sawchuk, Alan P.; Surgery, School of MedicineRenal arterial stenosis (RAS) often causes renovascular hypertension, which may result in kidney failure and life-threatening consequences. Direct assessment of the hemodynamic severity of RAS has yet to be addressed. In this work, we present a computational concept to derive a new, noninvasive, and patient-specific index to assess the hemodynamic severity of RAS and predict the potential benefit to the patient from a stenting therapy. The hemodynamic index is derived from a functional relation between the translesional pressure indicator (TPI) and lumen volume reduction (S) through a parametric deterioration of the RAS. Our in-house computational platform, InVascular, for image-based computational hemodynamics is used to compute the TPI at given S. InVascular integrates unified computational modeling for both image processing and computational hemodynamics with graphic processing unit parallel computing technology. The TPI-S curve reveals a pair of thresholds of S indicating mild or severe RAS. The TPI at S = 0 represents the pressure improvement following a successful stenting therapy. Six patient cases with a total of 6 aortic and 12 renal arteries are studied. The computed blood pressure waveforms have good agreements with the in vivo measured ones and the systolic pressure is statistical equivalence to the in-vivo measurements with p < .001. Uncertainty quantification provides the reliability of the computed pressure through the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The severity assessments of RAS in four cases are consistent with the medical practice. The preliminary results inspire a more sophisticated investigation for real medical insights of the new index. This computational concept can be applied to other arterial stenoses such as iliac stenosis. Such a noninvasive and patient-specific hemodynamic index has the potential to aid in the clinical decision-making of interventional treatment with reduced medical cost and patient risks.Item General power-law temporal scaling for unequal-size microbubble coalescence(APS, 2020) Chen, Rou; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Zeng, Jianhuan; Zhu, Likun; Mechanical and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyWe systematically study the effects of liquid viscosity, liquid density, and surface tension on global microbubble coalescence using lattice Boltzmann simulation. The liquid-gas system is characterized by Ohnesorge number Oh ≡ ηh/√ρhσrF with ηh, ρh, σ, and rF being viscosity and density of liquid, surface tension, and the radius of the larger parent bubble, respectively. This study focuses on the microbubble coalescence without oscillation in an Oh range between 0.5 and 1.0. The global coalescence time is defined as the time period from initially two parent bubbles touching to finally one child bubble when its half-vertical axis reaches above 99% of the bubble radius. Comprehensive graphics processing unit parallelization, convergence check, and validation are carried out to ensure the physical accuracy and computational efficiency. From 138 simulations of 23 cases, we derive and validate a general power-law temporal scaling T ∗ = A0γ−n, that correlates the normalized global coalescence time (T ∗) with size inequality (γ ) of initial parent bubbles. We found that the prefactor A0 is linear to Oh in the full considered Oh range, whereas the power index n is linear to Oh when Oh < 0.66 and remains constant when Oh > 0.66. The physical insights of the coalescence behavior are explored. Such a general temporal scaling of global microbubble coalescence on size inequality may provide useful guidance for the design, development, and optimization of microfluidic systems for various applications.Item Inlet and Outlet Boundary Conditions and Uncertainty Quantification in Volumetric Lattice Boltzmann Method for Image-Based Computational Hemodynamics(MDPI, 2022-01-10) Yu, Huidan; Khan, Monsurul; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Chunze; Du, Xiaoping; Chen, Rou; Fang, Xin; Long, Jianyun; Sawchuk, Alan P.; Surgery, School of MedicineInlet and outlet boundary conditions (BCs) play an important role in newly emerged image-based computational hemodynamics for blood flows in human arteries anatomically extracted from medical images. We developed physiological inlet and outlet BCs based on patients’ medical data and integrated them into the volumetric lattice Boltzmann method. The inlet BC is a pulsatile paraboloidal velocity profile, which fits the real arterial shape, constructed from the Doppler velocity waveform. The BC of each outlet is a pulsatile pressure calculated from the three-element Windkessel model, in which three physiological parameters are tuned by the corresponding Doppler velocity waveform. Both velocity and pressure BCs are introduced into the lattice Boltzmann equations through Guo’s non-equilibrium extrapolation scheme. Meanwhile, we performed uncertainty quantification for the impact of uncertainties on the computation results. An application study was conducted for six human aortorenal arterial systems. The computed pressure waveforms have good agreement with the medical measurement data. A systematic uncertainty quantification analysis demonstrates the reliability of the computed pressure with associated uncertainties in the Windkessel model. With the developed physiological BCs, the image-based computation hemodynamics is expected to provide a computation potential for the noninvasive evaluation of hemodynamic abnormalities in diseased human vessels.Item Inlet and Outlet Boundary Conditions and Uncertainty Quantification in Volumetric Lattice Boltzmann Method for Image-Based Computational Hemodynamics(MDPI, 2022) Yu, Huidan; Khan, Monsurul; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Chunze; Du, Xiaoping; Chen, Rou; Fang, Xin; Long, Jianyun; Sawchuk, Alan P.; Mechanical and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyInlet and outlet boundary conditions (BCs) play an important role in newly emerged image-based computational hemodynamics for blood flows in human arteries anatomically extracted from medical images. We developed physiological inlet and outlet BCs based on patients’ medical data and integrated them into the volumetric lattice Boltzmann method. The inlet BC is a pulsatile paraboloidal velocity profile, which fits the real arterial shape, constructed from the Doppler velocity waveform. The BC of each outlet is a pulsatile pressure calculated from the three-element Windkessel model, in which three physiological parameters are tuned by the corresponding Doppler velocity waveform. Both velocity and pressure BCs are introduced into the lattice Boltzmann equations through Guo’s non-equilibrium extrapolation scheme. Meanwhile, we performed uncertainty quantification for the impact of uncertainties on the computation results. An application study was conducted for six human aortorenal arterial systems. The computed pressure waveforms have good agreement with the medical measurement data. A systematic uncertainty quantification analysis demonstrates the reliability of the computed pressure with associated uncertainties in the Windkessel model. With the developed physiological BCs, the image-based computation hemodynamics is expected to provide a computation potential for the noninvasive evaluation of hemodynamic abnormalities in diseased human vessels.Item A new noninvasive and patient-specific hemodynamic index for the severity of renal stenosis and outcome of interventional treatment(Wiley, 2022) Yu, Huidan; Khan, Monsurul; Wu, Hao; Du, Xiaoping; Chen, Rou; Rollins, Dave M.; Fang, Xin; Long, Jianyun; Xu, Chenke; Sawchuk, Alan P.; Mechanical and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyRenal arterial stenosis (RAS) often causes renovascular hypertension, which may result in kidney failure and life-threatening consequences. Direct assessment of the hemodynamic severity of RAS has yet to be addressed. In this work, we present a computational concept to derive a new, noninvasive, and patient-specific index to assess the hemodynamic severity of RAS and predict the potential benefit to the patient from a stenting therapy. The hemodynamic index is derived from a functional relation between the translesional pressure indicator (TPI) and lumen volume reduction (S) through a parametric deterioration of the RAS. Our in-house computational platform, InVascular, for image-based computational hemodynamics is used to compute the TPI at given S. InVascular integrates unified computational modeling for both image processing and computational hemodynamics with GPU parallel computing technology. The TPI-S curve reveals a pair of thresholds of S indicating mild or severe RAS. The TPI at S=0 represents the pressure improvement following a successful stenting therapy. Six patient cases with a total of 6 aortic and 12 renal arteries are studied. The computed blood pressure waveforms have good agreements with the in-vivo measured ones and the systolic pressure is statistical equivalence to the in-vivo measurements with p<0.001. Uncertainty quantification provides the reliability of the computed pressure through the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The severity assessments of RAS in four cases are consistent with the medical practice. The preliminary results inspire a more sophisticated investigation for real medical insights of the new index. This computational concept can be applied to other arterial stenoses such as iliac stenosis. Such a noninvasive and patient-specific hemodynamic index has the potential to aid in the clinical decision-making of interventional treatment with reduced medical cost and patient risks.Item Scalings of Inverse Energy Transfer and Energy Decay in 3-D Decaying Isotropic Turbulence with Non-rotating or Rotating Frame of Reference(2019) Chen, Rou; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Xu, Yousheng; Zhu, Luoding; Mechanical and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyEnergy development of decaying isotropic turbulence in a 3-D periodic cube with non-rotating or rotating frames of reference is studied through direct numerical simulation using GPU accelerated lattice Boltzmann method. The initial turbulence is isotropic, generated in spectral space with prescribed energy spectrum E(κ)~κm in a range between κmin and κmax. The Taylor microscale Reynolds number Reλ and Rossby number Ro are introduced to characterize the inertial, viscous, and rotational attributes of the system. The focus of this study is on the scalings of early inverse energy transfer and late energy decay in the development of turbulent energy under various conditions through combinations of m, κmin, κmax, Reλ and Ro. First, we demonstrate the validity of the simulation by confirming the quantitative dependence of the decay exponent n on the initial energy spectrum exponent m, at Reλ =255 and Ro=∞, varying the values of m, κmin and κmax. Second, at relatively low Reλ, the decay exponent for different initial spectra statistically fall in respective ranges, all of which agree well with the corresponding analytical predictions. Third, we quantitatively investigate the 3-D inverse energy transfer. Our findings include (i) the exponent of inverse energy transfer spectrum E(κ)~κσ depends on the initial spectrum exponent E(κ) ~ κm: if m<4, σ=m while if m≥4, σ=4; (ii) rotation alters the inverse energy transfer rate when Reλ≤255 and Ro≥0.8; (iii) the energy increase in large scale during inverse energy transfer exhibits a bell shape, the peak of which varies with Reλ and Ro.Item Spatial and Temporal Scaling of Unequal Microbubble Coalescence(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Chen, Rou; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Zhu, Likun; Lee, Taehun; Patil, Raveena M.We numerically study coalescence of air microbubble in water, with density ratio 833 and viscosity ratio 50.5, using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Focuses are on the effects of size inequality of parent bubbles on the coalescence geometry and time and underlying dynamics of unequal microbubble coalescence. Twelve cases, varying the size ratio of large to small parent bubble γ from 5.33 to 1, are systematically investigated. The “coalescence preference” of coalesced bubble closer to the larger parent bubble is well captured. A power-law relation between the preferential relative distance χ and size inequality γ as χ ∼ γ−2.079 is consistent to the recent experimental observations. Meanwhile, the coalescence time also exhibits power-law scaling as T ∼ γ−0.7, implying that unequal bubbles coalesce faster than equal bubbles. Such a time scaling of coalescence on size inequality is believed the first-time observation as the fast coalescence of microbubbles is generally hard to be recorded through laboratory experimentation.Item Spatial and Temporal Scaling of Unequal Microbubble Coalescence(Wiley, 2017-04) Chen, Rou; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Zhu, Likun; Patil, Raveena M.; Department of Engineering Technology, School of Engineering and TechnologyWe numerically study coalescence of air microbubbles in water, with density ratio 833 and viscosity ratio 50.5, using lattice Boltzmann method. The focus is on the effects of size inequality of parent bubbles on the interfacial dynamics and coalescence time. Twelve cases, varying the size ratio of large to small parent bubble from 5.33 to 1, are systematically investigated. The “coalescence preference,” coalesced bubble closer to the larger parent bubble, is well observed and the captured power-law relation between the preferential relative distance χ and size inequality γ, math formula, is consistent to the recent experimental observations. Meanwhile, the coalescence time also exhibits power-law scaling as math formula, indicating that unequal bubbles coalesce faster than equal bubbles. Such a temporal scaling of coalescence on size inequality is believed to be the first-time observation as the fast coalescence of microbubbles is generally hard to be recorded through laboratory experimentation.Item Study on coalescence dynamics of unequal-sized microbubbles captive on solid substrate(Elsevier, 2018-11) Zhou, Shuyi; Cao, Yuanzhi; Chen, Rou; Sun, Tao; Fezzaa, Kamel; Yu, Huidan; Zhu, Likun; Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyThe dynamics of bubble coalescence are of importance for a number of industrial processes, in which the size inequality of the parent bubbles plays a significant role in mass transport, topological change and overall motion. In this study, coalescence of unequal-sized microbubbles captive on a solid substrate was observed from cross-section view using synchrotron high-speed imaging technique and a microfluidic gas generation device. The bridging neck growth and surface wave propagation at the early stage of coalescence were investigated by experimental and numerical methods. The results show that theoretical half-power-law of neck growth rate is still valid when viscous effect is neglected. However, the inertial-capillary time scale is associated with the initial radius of the smaller parent microbubble. The surface wave propagation rate on the larger parent microbubble is proportional to the inertial-capillary time scale.Item Understanding Microbubble Coalescence Using High-Speed Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Method Simulation(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Zhou, Shuyi; Cao, Yuanzhi; Chen, Rou; Chen, Chuanyi; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Zhu, Likun; Sun, TaoMicrobubble coalescence is one of the important research areas of bubble dynamics. The purpose of this research is to seek deeper understanding and relative mathematical relation on microbubble coalescence. To fulfill that, we conducted both experiments and simulations. For the part of experiment, we fabricated a microfluidic gas generator with better performance leading corresponding fluidic chemical reaction. After that we utilized ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging facility at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory to capture the gas generating and microbubble merging phenomena using high speed imaging. These experiments show how the microbubbles with the same ratio contact and merge in the reaction channel and different concentration of reactants. As for the part of simulation, we lead the simulation basing on lattice Boltzmann method to simulate microbubble coalescence in water with unequal diameter ratio. Focuses are on the effects of size inequality of parent bubbles on the coalescence geometry and time. The “coalescence preference” of coalesced bubble closer to the larger parent bubble is well captured. A power-law relation between the preferential relative distance and size inequality is consistent to the recent experimental observations. Meanwhile, the coalescence time also exhibits power-law scaling, indicating that unequal bubbles coalesce faster than equal bubbles.